For the death of Alexander

The version of 'Toxic attack " (intoxication "arsenic") Alexander.

Again protagonist Ptolemy. As the principal of general / bodyguard but - primarily - responsible for everything he ate and drank Alexander.

According to the following rationale, without his 'assistance', the poison could not in any way to find his way to his glass "suspicious Commander". Who was fully aware of how many enemies he had gained with his works.

War and state.

fast was building a "multinational empire" constantly violating the "First Class" Macedonians. Of which had already killed many. Something that evolved at the time, every day, more and faster.

But no, the "background" of all this deadly treacherous intrigue will not see it here. In what other mainly because much of Generals / Staff Officers of Macedonians wanted him dead immediately will devote the next note.

As for the version of "biological attack" (deliberate contamination of Alexander with infectious disease, eg typhus) developed previously. The following excerpts are from an extremely interesting book "The Mysterious Death of Alexander the Great", of P. Doherty, Ed. Enalios, s.295. The defiantly silenced this historic case, the author analyzes in depth the terms (Literally) a fantastic "forensic analysis" ...

"... Ptolemy should, Therefore, have played a leading role in that fateful banquet May 29 323 e.g.. Our sources are very specific. Alexander had attended in an official banquet. He was ready to retire, when he was invited by Midios in a Cômoi or feast.
Plutarch tells:
"…One day, after he hosted a lavish feast in honor of Nearchus, he went, as is usual, take a refreshing bath, that after retiring for rest. In between, Midios came and he was invited to attend in a feast and the king was unable to spoil the chatiri ... ".
Diodorus tells us again that "alerted him Midios Thessalos, one of his friends to attend IN A Cômoi ". Arrian substantially reproduces the same. The impression is given through all these documents and confirmed by the "Brochures" in the Life of Alexander, It is that the second festival was organized as a surprise from the Companions of, an invitation that Alexander could not reject, given the turbulent psychological condition and weakness for wine.
However, knowing the king's obsession, suspicion of, superstitions and fears, You should be particularly careful about any suspicious movement. The symposium will be seen in a general climate of omens and fears of Alexander, repeated sacrifices to placate the gods.
It should certainly be particularly wary of people like the supposed sommelier, the Iolaus, for his father whose (NB. Antipater, Macedonia / Greece Governor) He had suspicions, and recently he had cheirodikisei against his brother, Kassandrou.

Ptolemy was otherwise, commander of the faithful, servant, and tester King, who decided to destroy the back Alexander,before turning one against. And the most important, the Midios never organized such a symposium without the consent of the servant, and tester King, of General Ptolemy, who was responsible for the security of Alexander.

The celebration is not even excluded that idea was Ptolemy, the time was the most suitable and things had to join as soon as according to plan.
Ptolemy placed on the part of even a few dramatic touches, sure to be present that evening and Proteus drunkard, nephew Klitou (NB. who was slain by Alexander in another drunk)…
Ptolemy, Power manager and tester King, He must have been somewhere near, although he does not say anything like that in his memoirs.
Indeed, judging from what say the kingdom Newspapers, the impression that, when the king fell ill and died, Ptolemy was nowhere around there. Taking into consideration our role and position of Ptolemy, this is pretty unlikely.
To say the truth, Justin (NB. ARC. Author of the season) says he invited Alexander and a "partner" or "follower".
If the king was so obsessed with the issue of security if Ptolemy was his personal bodyguard and "progefstis", then he follows the mysterious or "partner" can not be other than Ptolemy, who will had urged, of course, accept the invitation.
They were all ready and the plan would pass now in the execution phase.
The Proteus was solid glass, the wine glasses emptied and refilled and Ptolemy used the key position which had, his close relationship with the king to throw to drink the fatal poison: male.

The poison used was male, which was well known to ancient and quite widespread in the eastern provinces of the Persian Empire, as in Punjab, an area that was recently occupied by Alexander's army and even there they considered effective aphrodisiac.
Strabo, the fifteenth book, citing its Onisikrato, says the Carmania, the eastern province, where Alexander returned after the campaign in India, there were two hills, one of the salt and the other from male.
The symptoms of poisoning by arsenic are strong pains, organic shock, intense discomfort, excessive thirst and skin irritations.
Strong pain usually begin within one hour, which dissolves the body.
Diodorus of Sicily says Alexander expresses these specific symptoms at the symposium Midiou:
"... filling a large wineglass, got a gulp. At the same time she screamed as if caught in a stabbing pain [in my estimation, result of the male who had just gotten] and escort of friends led by the hand in the apartments ... "
Plutarch mentions the same symptoms, It not only accepts the. Arrian, more cautious, He mentions this as a reaction to the transfer of some unknown source, obviously the same as that of Diodorus, "Just emptied his glass, he felt a stabbing pain and was forced to pull out of the festival ".
Acute arsenic poisoning leads to death within hours. One of the practices recommended for the treatment of poisoning by arsenic is emesis or gastric lavage.
The drinking plenty of water also helps the kidneys to excrete the poison, but in most cases the male bring certain death.
Vomiting (intense discomfort) after the wine that he drank, Alexander will be felt for a moment a little better and that probably did the first severe symptoms milder, as they say doctors.

The Blythe, in a very detailed study on poisons, lists the symptoms of poisoning by arsenic, "... the tongue swells, There is intense thirst […] while generally observed and pains […] across the abdomen ... ".
The Blythe continues below, saying that a single dose of arsenic may not immediately result in death, but as the first stage manifested a prolonged and fatal disease.
"... A dose of arsenic trioxide may result in prolonged and deadly disease, the most famous example in medical practice that the suicide attempt of the Duke de Praslen, who attempted suicide, taking a dose of arsenic trioxide Wednesday 18 August 1847. The exact time of this action can not be ascertained, but the first symptoms began to manifest themselves in 10 pm. They preceded the familiar signs of vomiting, while the next day showed diarrhea, fainting and extremely weak pulse.
Preparation observed transient remission these symptoms, while the edges were very icy, his heart functioned intermittently and limp and there was a general collapse. Saturday presented lightweight fever, without pain or tenderness in the abdomen, vomiting or diarrhea. That day there was no urination. On Sunday, the patient complained of intense priximo throat and swallowing become difficult. The thirst was intense, language ruddy, as the mucosa of the mouth and the pharynx, and the patient had a burning sensation in the mouth to anus.

Hurt and were swollen abdomen, his skin was burning too, his pulse was rapid and erratic - sometimes stronger, sometimes weak - the gut should be relieved by injections, the amount of urine was very small. The night could not sleep at all.
The duke left his last breath in 4.35 PM Tuesday 24 the month, sixth day since I got sick. She had spirit clarity until the last. As he approached the end, his breathing became more and more sad, his body was frozen whole and had palpitations ... '.
Most of these symptoms are similar to those of Alexander, neither is Duke died immediately - the illness lasted a total of six days, while in the case of Alexander lasted little more. Of Course, the fitness of the Grand Conqueror, vomiting and wine can keep him alive longer, but the evil he had done.
The male in one finds in many forms, more or less strong. By vomiting clears the stomach and this is why we read in Basel Newspapers that Alexander met - as was done with Hephaestion.
The Basel Newspapers, though, They said that following the King consumed more food - as it did Hephaestion - and then deteriorated. Ptolemy, as catering manager and tester King, You should be responsible for his food. The male detect the symptoms that preceded the untimely death of Alexander confirmed by even more compelling evidence.

Until the 11th century, the male was the most powerful weapon that had been in the hands of would-be assassins.
Unlike ellevoro, who has a very bitter taste and fast strikes to the heart, the male may not discovered immediately, while symptoms caused not differ from those of malaria or cholera.
The thirst Alexander, the desire is always in the bathroom are in addition indication. Only the male has a great evil and this explains the many exhumations that took place in the late nineteenth and until the early 20th century, as it significantly inhibits the decomposition of the body of the deceased.
two sources, Plutarch and Curtius common, specifically state that this happened with Alexander's body and this despite the intense heat of summer Babylonian. As Blythe explains:
"... Often there is an intriguing maintaining the body of the deceased. When this happens, very suspicious, particularly if the body was exposed to such conditions, which normally should have quickly disintegrated. In the famous case of the European Spaichert pharmacist (1876), the body of his wife Spaichert unearthed eleven months after her death. While the coffin floated in a pool of water, the female body was like Mummy. That's because the body's organs contained arsenic, while the soil of the churchyard there peireiche this. Mr. P. Cox, defense attorney, He could not explain otherwise that may have thus maintain the body, under such conditions, unless it had made use of arsenic. And this item, along with other, it was important, to the convicted Spaichert ... "
Ptolemy not only managed to poison the Great Conqueror but also to master the next day - as guardian of the royal arches and official tester and servant.
In the last stage of his illness Alexander had flares and made several moves to the issue of succession, as to anoint his successor Perdiccas and deliver the official ring.
Yet, all sources without exception emphasize that the last stage of the king's illness was a strict control in the royal chamber and forbidden entry to most.
As for doctors, alerted, but they had lost the symptoms of the patient. is not n 'any wonder: until the late 19th century, as in the notorious case of arsenic in Meimprik 1880, often mislead doctors, not to discover the real cause of the victim's illness was poisoned with arsenic.

Moreover, hands of Alexander's doctors were "tied" after the ugly end of their unfortunate colleague, Owl's doctor, who was crucified after the sudden and unexpected death of Hephaistion, one year ago.
Doctors were reluctant to intervene, lest thereby deteriorating the situation of Alexander and threw them responsibility.
Ptolemy pulled the strings and only towards the end informed about developments soldiers and rank and let them enter the room of a dying king, but then it was too late.
It is interesting to note that Justin mentions suspicions were ordinary soldiers and the rank of 'conspiracy', while all sources describe a general situation of unrest in the army ....
... Ptolemy, as Iago, remained faithful Gen., the docile subordinates "can be with a smile and yet be bastard" ....
... The Ptolemy silence during this very important period of his life, let alone the life of the leader of, it is apokalyptikotati.
Besides Ptolemy occupied most of what would happen after.
Since no evidence that Alexander, as languished, he suspected that he had been the victim of conspiracy, although they talked last words that left his empire "in statist" or "the most worthy", like his comment that "his staff would prepare in honor of the most brilliant funeral rites", They could be interpreted as a kind of sardonic reference to the fact that Alexander had predicted that the issue of succession will lead to bloodshed ... ".

Some observations and thoughts ....
I would add that Alexander was not stupid. Each other. Anyone could be the press, been wrong to the betrayal of themselves "Proponents" by, the makers of.
But it is impossible not to understand that "poisoned".
Also, as mentioned above, and the author himself, the "male" poison was known in the ancient world ... especially in the Persian / Asian / East Indian.
So, was (logically must have been) completely and in detail and known symptoms.

And where there is a "known poison and symptoms" and are "antidotes".
Do not forget that the invasion of India, He wounded with poisoned arrow he Ptolemy and "with antidotes" who supplied the "experts in the region," the cured himself Alexander (that was quite satisfactory medical training of his youth and then worked diligently. Especially in poisons. So, had personal (diagnostic) view on the "what happened" and to him and to Hephaestion a year ago with EXACTLY THE SAME SYMPTOMS)…
Therefore, It was a "widespread conspiracy" Courtyard Alexander.
And very very "chopped disguised ', so causing the intelligence.
A cover-up that lasted (and keeps) centuries.
And after he had clarity for ten days and not "left" sudden, It is mildly paradoxical that did not define who will be his successor (of his children) and who - respectively - would be the Protector of the Throne as adulthood.

Only one way to explain this.
Alexander therefore understood very well that poisoned.
therefore he realized that his family was in danger. That there was no way to protect. neither this, nor the Throne.
He understood that there was no way even to send a message to warn the Olympics to take urgent and strict security measures.
He could not trust anyone.
If you understand that "understood" the more likely it was to find a sword in the heart.
The high strategy So intellect - even amid unbearable pain - captured the ONLY way it was at that time to "defend" even after death.
He had to keep the "imperial potential power» to the end and to "translate all in one last order" that no one could or would dare to "violated".
Play that the "game" of pretending that "did not understand anything".

By "historically unusual" command the Ring go 'interim statists ".
namely, the only way to become the "statist" (the strongest) it was war between them.
I.e., the mutual extermination.

So, They would have an interest to get his family to their place n 'raise "points of" everyone.

So they had motivation and interest to keep them alive.

Through this state of confusion, perhaps succeeded - even after death - to the Olympics the necessary time to "build and consolidate its power".
thus ensuring the successor Alexander from generation.
Something certainly not worked. Or maybe, worked "partially", He kept them alive for a time but were unable to exploit to "prevail" of their powerful opponents.
The ferocious wars of the guillotine stood Descendants of Alexander Generation ....

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