Reconstitution of the seven ancient wonders of the digital world

Digital reconstruction of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.

“Everyone has heard every one of the Seven Wonders of the World, but few have seen all that . To succeed one must go abroad, Persia, to cross the river Euphrates, travel to Egypt, some time to pass between the Greeks in Greece, go to Halicarnassus in Caria, to sail in Rhodes and see Ephesus in Ionia. Only if you travel the world and exhausted from the effort of the journey, will satisfy the desire to see all the Wonders of the World. CONTINUE THE READING History of Ancient Amphipolis and the incredible events that happened there

Amphipolis was an ancient city built in Eastern Macedonia, on the banks of the river Strymon, in place of the city formerly called “Nine Roads” or very close to it.

Ο Φίλιππος στον Τύμβο Καστά

Philip in Kasta Tomb

Amphipolis was founded by Athenians the 437 e.g.. in order to control the rich raw materials area and finally abandoned in the 8th century AD.

Today the area is built the namesake modern settlement, located approximately 60 km. Southeast of Serres.

Archaeological research has uncovered remains of human settlement dating back around 3.000 e.g.. Due to its strategic position the area was fortified very early.

The Iion was an ancient Greek city founded by the colonists from Eretria on the left bank of the Struma, at a distance 25 stages (4.628 m. i.e.. 25×185,15) from Amphipolis, but it is far from Amphipolis or Chrysoupoli Kavalas.

The Iiona the historian Thucydides in The History of the Peloponnesian War as a place of particular strategic importance for the Athenians during the Peloponnesian War.

The Iion or Iiona or Ion, in antiquity, He was captured by the Persians in 476 e.g.. during the Persian Wars. Xerxes built near the bridge to pass the Persian army in Macedonia. Later, the Persian general Vogis defended against the Athenians, who were led by Kimon, the son of Miltiades.

Then the 475 e.g.. besieged, to join the "League of Delos", led Athens, and chief of the allied troops was General Cimon.

In the Peloponnesian War, historian Thucydides, which was saved from the general Vrasidas , not yet managed to recover Amphipolis, so sentenced to death, which has avoided staying exile twenty years.

The 480 e.g.. Xerxes passing the area buried alive nine young men and nine maidens as a sacrifice to river god. Studying sources, the history of Amphipolis can only stop one to information that gives us Herodotus, that Xerxes during its passage from the region 480 BC made the burial nine teenagers and nine girls, the local population!

Specifically Herodotus in the Seventh book says: “And this site, located around ap᾽ pangeo, Fyllis said, and extends westward to the river Aggitis which pours its waters into the Struma, While southwards extends to the Strymon, in which the Magi, to get aisioys omens, butchered white horses.

Since they made those magical ceremonies of the river and, near these s᾽, and many in the city Nine roads hedoni, coloured by the bridge over the Strymon, as they found the banks of zemenes with bridge. And when I learned that this place was called Nine routes, katachwsan living on Earth there nine brave men and nine women of local population.

” Below tries not to give his own interpretation of this strange act of Xerxes: What is the Persian custom of living on earth katachonoun· so, I have information that the Amistris, the wife of Xerxes, in her old age she did gift to God, katapws believe that reign in the underworld, two eptades boys, sons official Persians, katachonontas of the earth - was thanks to the god give her life. About one hundred and fifty years later from the same point would begin, the fleet of Alexander the Great in Asia. Only Alexander had no need either to "burial" new, nor to sacrifice another "Iphigenia".

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A year later at Amphipolis King of Macedonia Alexander defeated the remnants of the army of Xerxes.

In the 5th century BC. Athenians attempted to colonize the region had direct access to important raw materials, such as gold and silver Paggeo and dense forests of the region of interest -the last of the Athenians for their timber.

The first attempt in Athens, the 465 e.g., to colonize the area failed. Thracians peltasts crashed in Draviskos the hoplite phalanx 2.500-3.000 Athenian colonists in the Nine Streets city, who went to the Thracian hinterland in order to capture the lucrative gold mines.

A little to the west of the current homonymous village, at "Fragkala", identified remains (architectural members and inscriptions) ancient city, which coincides with the ancient Thracian city of Idonidas Draviskos, the name of the rescued, with only minimal alteration, the old name of the village "Sdraviki".

The mention of the city by Strabo and Appian testifies to the existence of the Roman era, It probably downgraded to mere hamlet dependent administratively from the nearby Amphipolis. The 465 BC Thracians peltasts crashed there hoplite phalanx 2.500-3.000 Athenian colonists in the Nine Streets city, who went to the Thracian hinterland in order to capture the lucrative gold mines.

The name of the Nine Streets, the city took it literally nine roads leading there or started from there. They were the backbone of the political map of the entire Pangaiou. Depending on the destination of every street, given to him by me, proper name.

The Nine Streets was the Hedoni city on the banks of the Struma River in Macedonia which was destroyed by the Athenians , who raided sudden, without any prior cause.

Specifically, after the Persian Wars, the 430 e.g., Athenian Republic decided to capture the gold-bearing region and the expulsion of its inhabitants to create there own colony, sending the Athenian general who is pure and eventually he occupied, sacked and destroyed evicting residents, those who survived the annihilation, It is then built in the same place Amfipolis.

Thucydides says : "This position, where the city is now, previously tried to colonize and Aristagoras of Miletus, since the persecuted King Darius, but was expelled from Hedoni· then, after thirty-two years the Athenians sent ten thousand settlers and their own and other cities volunteers, who were exterminated in Draviskos by the Thracians.

Athens returned the time of Pericles, the 437 e.g., founding Amphipolis. According to Thucydides, the city was so named because the Strymon River flows around the city surrounding the, but the etymology there are other theories. In Amphipolis subsequently became the main base of the Athenians in Thrace and goal Spartans. And after twenty-nine years, the (430 e.g.. ), Athenians came again led to the establishment of the colony pure Nicky, They expelled the Hedoni and built the city in the position formerly called Nine Streets.

Basis for the company were Iiona, their commercial port at the river mouth, within twenty-five stages of the current city the pure named Amphipolis, For as the Strymon the washes from both sides forming elbow, long wall built from a point of the river to another and founded the city, excellent from the sea and from the land ". During the Peloponnesian War the Spartans conquered the city. For the city's salvation was sent by the Athenians an expedition led by Thucydides (the subsequent history).

mission failed, which led Thucydides in exile. Then he sent Cleon who was killed during the battle of Amphipolis, a severe crash where they found death and the Spartan general Brasidas. With the Peace of Nicias Nicias or peace, Sparta was bound to pay the Amphipolis to Athens, something that was not done and marked a new frictions and one of the issues that stood cause breaching the peace and resume the Peloponnesian War.


Filinnion, blood love

Filinnion, blood love

One of the oldest stories, talking about women vampires in Greek antiquity, It is the one that delivers the paradoxografos inflame the Trallians (freedman slave of Hadrian, 2century. a.d.) in his book "On the wonderful" 2.1 (Paradoxographoi: Writers miraculous Greeks, Ed. Antonius Westermann, Brunswigae, Londini 1839, SLE. 117-121). 
Survives the second half of the story, the original text of which you can read in the first source cited below. For Filinnion speaks the philosopher Proclus (5century. a.d.) the platonic comments:  proclus, Plato rem publican Commentary 2, filling some of the gaps of history. The whole story is based on an older (wasted) number of letters, some of which was written by Hipparchus and the other Arrideus, the stepbrother M. Alexandrou.
The events take place in Amphipolis(1) the 4th century. e.g., during the reign of Philip II of Macedonia. The heroine is Filinnion, the lover of the Mahatma.
A lamp for tonight. The least i'll light. love night I'll be. Only dim light he. Barely a creaky flogitsa to the wall reflects our bodies. Fire it'll be passion ... passion burning fire stone ...
I am Filinnion of Dimostratou and Graces, korasis Amfipolitissa 14 Moon and something. I look Mahatma My loft. From Pella is my good, Xenios(2) my father's. Apsilos Makednos(3) brave, gerokormos like poplar, ears amber hair of, seas deep gaze of, pomegranates ripe lips. Handsome as Macedon.
He walked beside my father smiling, when the protapantisa at our property on the banks of Struma. It was a hot afternoon in summer, h lazy, but I the slaves I washed clothes in the river. Barefoot water, lifted the thin tunic thighs to not get wet, was soaked, misoxepleka hair by bending the shore and the hard blows in clothes with Maul(4). Sweat, water, scarce shadow over the trees, blurred capsule skyline and crack He.
Jumped the heart in the chest and it become bold, orthothike and as if that penetrated the damp cloth, I feel it, ashamed, I put my hands in front, something, somehow cover, flinch.
– Come Mahatma you to meet my daughter the Filinnion, the swarm of my house! He told my father, I think· I am not sure, the unexpected, the beauty of, my shame, all entangled skein in indissoluble mesimeriatiki labrys.
– Naiad(5) your daughter Dimostrate! Joy thyself who will get! vale Filinnion! He responded Mahatma I felt his gaze to burns.
Antichairetisa. My eyes downcast, my cheeks red from shame, longing to depart just to admire it again, secretly, with attention, to paint him in my mind not to forget the margin of.
– Mahatma will stay in our home shortly as to finish his work, continued my father. Along with your mother pamper my host friend best possible Filinnion, continued my father. Then he smiled "Do not get tired so much my daughter, no need, let the slaves to wash, "he said and then removed sigoperpatontas with Mahatma next tou.Na 'yes supposedly love what I feel; This stunning mind, the apokaroma(6) the senses, longing to see him again; And if there is love, then what is it; He too; what he thinks; He feels something for me; 
"Yes", secrets whispered in my ear god. "At the same time you toxepsa, right in the chest. Experience. With him".
Eros was thus. Savage love, passionate, absolute, insatiable, invincible. Furtive glances behind the Doric columns of the peristyle courtyard, accidentally touches, parafylagmata for an instant xemonachiasma moments that supposedly had to bring something from the loft. And then secretly encounters on the banks of Struma, beneath the trees, within the foliage, only see the river god and Naiades the ineffable love. Flushing and Fear, Fear and excitement. If they see us; if you catch us; How there will be forgiveness; mercy how; There will be. Not for me, the apartheni daughter nor for him, the abuser hospitality. But again. Who can confront Eros; Not me, not the Mahatma.
She month living with us as to finish his work in Amphipolis. I know that over the long and must turn in parts of. All postpones. All pretend something to my father. And now the nights we spend together· finger nail (7) the smiximo, things strangled our questioner not sound, only witness the light of the small lamp, which vibrates to the rhythm of our bodies, Our paint on walls and anointed antifengizei the black and white pebbled floor. On nights hide, nights live ...
– I will return my love. Wait for me, He said last night. And just come, I will ask of your father. Everything is gonna be alright. You'll see. Soon you will become my wife and you will be forever mine.
– I will wait here until he comes· What,What if it, I'm yours. given to you, I belong to you now and that does not change. Chrysalis(8) I was, pupa silky ginika in your hands.
– Do not forget Filinnion!
– Love always remember my dear. WHAT,He lives in the heart, he never dies.
They told us, so we talked, so we agreed. Xastochasti the youth, I think anything is possible, but then I did not know ... I waited and undermines, undermines and waited. Today, tomorrow, a day and yet another and another ... Misepse(9) for times of Mahatma ...
I waited in vain to look anchored in the West, on the road to Pella. I suffered. I think as a carriage approaching, neigh sounded; Steps to front door; someone came! I jump to see! My Mahatma; Not. Friends of father, generals and partners (10), sometimes speak, a symposium to, sometimes to go to high school(11) or for hunting, Aunt Timaessa with her daughters, Lampos archidoulos loaded merchandise from the city. times times, on the pretext that you visit the estate, detour on the height n 'gaze beyond the western wall(12) whether coming ...
And suddenly destruction! "Filinnion, grew longer. It's time to get married. For I have chosen excellent excellent, the Kratero(13). Close relationships with our King Philip and the firstborn of Alexander. Indeed, on a hunt saved the life of his successor! Honored the Krateros, for this marriage so our family will have strong alliances in the future ... "he continued to speak my father, but not heard anything anymore. My dizziness came. fainted. What if I cried bitterly for days, What if I asked kneeling, what if I stopped eating and languishing in agony in vain .... My mother the Graces was trying to be sweet words to dissuade, after stubborn and it looked at me strictly silent, My father did not want to hear a word. "Spoiled Korasida quirks" said angry at my mother. "He will not get the. I have spoken and "ended, with eyes of fire to earn ...
The marriage was. Many joys and glentokopi and death due gorgeous bride in the funerary chambers Crateros. My torment did not last long. A few days after the wedding, I returned to my parents. Secret conversations leading up for lost virginity and my dishonor her, the Krateros distracted at the beginning, but softened when my father sent with a chest gold shines, They all agreed among themselves that I am sick and need to take care of the house for a while, so they spread to family and friends, my father and mother in shame with closed my roof, came doctor confirmed my illness- paid handsomely and he- mouths shut, all lypountan the Hermes the Filinnion who did not live to enjoy the wedding and fell to death ... neither cat nor damage.
But I dies from my heart ache. Every day a little. I lay in bed and not xanasikothika. I did not want. I drank my tears and my despair was eating. I hurt my parents, with charged with dishonesty, I felt outcast, Mahatma had disappeared from face of the earth, vows of love false, hope to return any. That's it. The butterfly lived love, the sun shone and burned its wings. So here it was.
My life does not define it. I will set my death, I said. Spectrum(14) of myself I became the daughter Hour Front within six months. Nice and my funeral. With mournful procession with deposits in our family tomb in the necropolis of Amphipolis. I dressed in the most beautiful gown, with all my cutlery on the body, moschomyrismeni neatly cut, and lay down on the bed eating flesh. He puts me Simao many goodies, ivory combs and copper mirrors, gold and silver vessels, inlaid figurines, many flowers and then they covered with a shroud heme. All wept much, my parents disconsolate, lamentations and olofyrmoi my mother's students and nationalists ripped the wind, relatives grieved, friends and acquaintances tried to stand by, diffuse pain, and a nice kivouri for me. They sealed the double leaf marble tomb door. Two beautiful painted forms, Pluto and Persephone, my doorposts eternity. Somewhere got my eye a sign: 
"... tessarakaideketin tῷd covered the range tafῳ"(15). fourteen years, grave. Why it is written does; I slept.

I'm on top of the world! Pannychia (16) the celebration of love with my favorite. finally turned! By embracing eagerly, of missed me too, says, suffered without me, It came as fast as he could, swears again and again eternal faith. Wearing in tears gold ring that I give my antidorizei own the iron, symbols both of our eternal union. I offer a chrysoklysto glass to drink wine with love. She's mine now, My Conviction! I will not allow anything to anyone anymore to re-split us. The love of the price paid by my death, not owe another. Pay off and for him. Now we will live together! The gods appointed, the gods permit.
– Beloved Mahatma, Every night will come near you, Every night will mingle eternal love. Just keep it hidden from my parents, not to ever mention, our love should stay secret, I told him the first night that we were, Keynes and the respected.
I saw that the Thrassa parafylage out of the roof and then the Graces, my mother, who watched us with bulging eyes, whitewashed, die out. indifferent. Now they can not harm me another. Besides, Matins deep (17) I will leave, as I do every night.
– Mahatma, to implore us finally tell the truth! He screamed for a moment the desperate Graces. Filinnion was with you on the roof last night; Your feet prospefto iketis mother, talk to us, tell us. Do not deny another. We saw. And I and the slave THRASSOU. Tell us the truth. Respect hosting my husband's Dimostratou! And finally believe what I tell you! The Filinnion died six months ago and buried in our family tomb. There we said at the outset when you came to our home, in order not to upset with worries NOT thy stranger man. But Filinnion is dead· and yet we we saw in your arms!
Mahatma bent forward to Mother's pain and reverence to Dimostrato. He told them that we love each other from time, that actually spend the night with him, that returned from Pella only for me, he wanted to marry ... seemed lost my good with all that heard. Who and what death funeral; I was alive, alive in his arms. Times times even dined together. To the gold ring that earned him, the symbol of our marriage, to stithodesmida and I left the bed the last night, to smell my scent all day.
My mother Olofyrotan, watching the ring and stithodesmida that wore me in the grave, travage her hair and tearing his clothes, father collapsed from what he heard, The gall moanful cried like a funeral and my Mahatma stared dumbfounded them not knowing what to think, what to protopistepsei. In what he heard that I was supposedly lifeless, icy, dead or unconscious that a few hours before the larvae rejoiced, My body louloudomyristo; Not, Lies told him to apodioxoun of the groom. Otherwise, added, let's come back in the evening to see Filinnion the roof with their own eyes. They want to catch me and they, to see that I live, that exist, I thought.
Oh my Mahatma! Not keep our secret. Disclose ineffable, dried porn juices, froze the blood, They lost magic and now I have to return permanently to the arranged place. This is the will of the gods. Doubt can not be made to love, my dear. And ye my parents, what weep and lament now; You sent me to the grave with your insistence to marry Kratero. Sequelae tears what sense are, when the evil has been made;
Remained motionless in the bed of my favorite, kerosa, I ploutoneia view. SOUSOURO home for the apparent death, popularized the incredible city, People gathered in the portal, asking to know how and why, there were increasing rumors and voices calling for the opening of the tomb in order to ascertain the facts. I was finally; Dead or alive; Woman or specter;
The family tomb found in the deposition position my grandparents, all of them untouched· my deathbed empty. A chrysoklysto glass just above and beside a male iron ring ... Concern, agony everywhere inexplicable, discussions in every corner of the city. curse manifested; miracle of the gods in honor of Eros; Nobody knew to say with confidence. Others watched birds flying low to the west, some of Itami (18) which dried up at once. At the end, all agreed. Bad signs appeared in the heavens and on earth. This confirmed the seer Hyllus, excellent augur. This resurrection was not the will of Hermes psychopompos nor the Eumenides. Ordered to put my body on fire, He made no sense to the tomb xanatafo, ceremony to be out of town, in the last, then purged all holy, altars of the gods of the underworld and make sacrifices prepoumenes to Hermes chthonic and Xenios Zeus for the cleansing of all accrued transgressions.
These and became. Sealed with fire my death and all xanasanan relieved that got rid of the scourge. Even more that killed spectrum of Lamia (19), They thought with Lamia, of those who drink the blood of their lovers to live. Did I really vampire or just a love-struck woman; However, What,Whatever they say others, my Mahatma knew the truth. And it mattered. The next day he came to me· "No. crestfallen himself living when he brought" wrote in his grave.
(1) Amphipolis = Amphipolis was an Athenian colony near the mouth of the Strymon, which conquered the 357 e.g.. by Philip Second, emerging as a key city in the kingdom of.
(2) Xenios = guest, epithet of Jupiter (Xenios Zeus, the patron of hospitality).
(3) makednos = tall (the adjective is already used by Homer to the leaves of a tall poplar, The Odyssey ' 106: Oia te leaves Makednon aigeiroio). It also means large or heavenly. An earlier form of the name of Makednon (Macedonians) is the word Maketai, derived from the Doric word Makos, that the Ionic dialect called Length (in ancient Greek meant the height). Therefore, Macedonians are resident in high, ie mountainous country, the highlanders. It is also proposed that the name Macedoni((a))hand is a compound word, from the Makos + edanos or edanos (edanos = pleasant: Iliad N. 172 and edos = idys, sweet). With this etymology, Makednos means: maquettes, ie tall, long + edanos, that is sweet, likeable, pleasant, odoriferous, fragrant. Note that edanos means either the nation or the wedding gift-a < ednon, edna, ednaomai-omai. Also, by Hesychius, Makednon - makedani = long, high. Hdt. 1, 56: And the (Greek nation) polyplaniton card ... NOT on the Istiaiitidos as exanesti Kadmeia in question in the Pindos Makednon kaleomenon.
(4) jerk = Thick and heavy object we clobber clothes, when we wash them in fulling, river or sea.
(5) Naiad-s = Larvae freshwater, of sources (fountains), rivers, lakes.
(6) apokaroma = befuddle.
(7) finger nail = night < night (night).
(8) chrysalis = The second stage forming the throttle, which starts as a caterpillar and, enclosed in cocoon, awaits her transformation into a butterfly. In ancient times they called the butterfly "worm caterpillar", while the pupa "nekydallo", i.e. "dead housing" through which comes the butterfly / soul. Known myth of Eros and Psyche, feathered forms, the second to teeter between death and life. Since the larva of silkworm silk and originates or sir in ancient Greek.
(9) misepse = emigrated, traveled.
(10) partners = Macedonians horsemen upper socioeconomic class (elite), flanking the kings as bodyguard (royal partners).
(11) Amphipolis gymnasium = Made in b half of the 4th century, faithfully follows the standard type of Olympia High School, including the arena (47 × 36 m.), to which access is ensured through monumental scale, both corridors for runners (length of one step), one of which was covered (the fore-end) and the other outdoor (Paradromis). The premises of the palaestra destined for physical exercise, body care (baths), and education, symposia and worship of Hercules and Hermes protect athletes, They were distributed around a colonnaded courtyard Doric.
(12) wall Amphipolis = H fortify comprising a small inner enclosure (2,2 km.) covering only the urban center and a large yard (7,5 km.) that protects the whole settlement. The second precinct presents in the north of two noteworthy elements dating back to the first Member (5century.). Along Strymonas, at the foot of the slope, He had developed a unique system of tall and narrow wells on the base of the wall, allowing the flowing water to pass through the walls without flooding the inner suburbs of the city. In the same section, the gate opened towards the river led through a wooden bridge, in extremely residues of which there are two phases. The earliest phase can be identified with the bridge referred Thoukidides (4.103 and 108) the description of the battles between the Athenian Cleon and Lacedaemonian Brasidas (422 e.g.). The bridge deck based on a plurality of posts, mounted on the banks and the very riverbed. This unique character remains in Greece.
(13) Krateros = The known general of M. Alexandrou.
(14) spectrum = ghost, form, appearance, sign from heaven, Monster.
(15) tessarakaideketin tῷd covered the range tafῳ = Extract from inscription of epigrammatopoiou Persian of Macedon (He lived in the 4th century. e.g.). The whole epigram in the Palatine Anthology, HAF. 7.487:
Oleo public pre gamoio, Filainion, nor in matirPythias nice igagen in thalamousnymfiou, But seedy katadrypsasa pareiastessarakaideketin tῷd covered the range tafῳ
(16) pannychia = overnight.
(17) Matins deep = Early dawn, just before dawn.
(18) Itamos = Evergreen tree. In ancient Greek mythology Itamos was dedicated to the Furies, which punish people using poison. Artemis using arrows soaked in Itamos venom.
(19) Ghoul = The ghoul was following Hecate, demonic beings in the form of exquisite women and men fooled lonely travelers and under the pretext of carnal love, their kill and drank their blood. Similar form empusa and Mormon (Mormolyki). Downstream ancient writers consider all these spectra (ghosts).
D.V. Written (ed.), In Macedonia from the 7th century. e.g.. until late antiquity, Ed. Zitros, Thessaloniki 2011

Royal Christopoulou
MA, Archaeologist

Read moreExcavation: Filinnion, blood love

Philip was buried at Amphipolis!

In the tomb of the tomb caste of Amphipolis, The burial site was created for Philip. In box-like grave monument placed body and later created the mosaic which is shown crowned as Olympic. At The Same Time, the funerary monument itself was oriented towards the Filippeion Olympia, an ancient circular building in honor of Philip rimming three times for his victory at the Olympic Games. The price for this was high enough, since apart from the construction of Philippeion, renamed and the wife of Myrtali Olympiad.

For the death of Alexander

The version of 'Toxic attack " (intoxication "arsenic") Alexander.

Again protagonist Ptolemy. As the principal of general / bodyguard but - primarily - responsible for everything he ate and drank Alexander.

According to the following rationale, without his 'assistance', the poison could not in any way to find his way to his glass "suspicious Commander". Who was fully aware of how many enemies he had gained with his works.

War and state.

fast was building a "multinational empire" constantly violating the "First Class" Macedonians. Of which had already killed many. Something that evolved at the time, every day, more and faster.

But no, the "background" of all this deadly treacherous intrigue will not see it here. In what other mainly because much of Generals / Staff Officers of Macedonians wanted him dead immediately will devote the next note.

As for the version of "biological attack" (deliberate contamination of Alexander with infectious disease, eg typhus) developed previously. The following excerpts are from an extremely interesting book "The Mysterious Death of Alexander the Great", of P. Doherty, Ed. Enalios, s.295. The defiantly silenced this historic case, the author analyzes in depth the terms (Literally) a fantastic "forensic analysis" ...

"... Ptolemy should, Therefore, have played a leading role in that fateful banquet May 29 323 e.g.. Our sources are very specific. Alexander had attended in an official banquet. He was ready to retire, when he was invited by Midios in a Cômoi or feast.
Plutarch tells:
"…One day, after he hosted a lavish feast in honor of Nearchus, he went, as is usual, take a refreshing bath, that after retiring for rest. In between, Midios came and he was invited to attend in a feast and the king was unable to spoil the chatiri ... ".
Diodorus tells us again that "alerted him Midios Thessalos, one of his friends to attend IN A Cômoi ". Arrian substantially reproduces the same. The impression is given through all these documents and confirmed by the "Brochures" in the Life of Alexander, It is that the second festival was organized as a surprise from the Companions of, an invitation that Alexander could not reject, given the turbulent psychological condition and weakness for wine.
However, knowing the king's obsession, suspicion of, superstitions and fears, You should be particularly careful about any suspicious movement. The symposium will be seen in a general climate of omens and fears of Alexander, repeated sacrifices to placate the gods.
It should certainly be particularly wary of people like the supposed sommelier, the Iolaus, for his father whose (NB. Antipater, Macedonia / Greece Governor) He had suspicions, and recently he had cheirodikisei against his brother, Kassandrou.

Ptolemy was otherwise, commander of the faithful, servant, and tester King, who decided to destroy the back Alexander,before turning one against. And the most important, the Midios never organized such a symposium without the consent of the servant, and tester King, of General Ptolemy, who was responsible for the security of Alexander.

The celebration is not even excluded that idea was Ptolemy, the time was the most suitable and things had to join as soon as according to plan.
Ptolemy placed on the part of even a few dramatic touches, sure to be present that evening and Proteus drunkard, nephew Klitou (NB. who was slain by Alexander in another drunk)…
Ptolemy, Power manager and tester King, He must have been somewhere near, although he does not say anything like that in his memoirs.
Indeed, judging from what say the kingdom Newspapers, the impression that, when the king fell ill and died, Ptolemy was nowhere around there. Taking into consideration our role and position of Ptolemy, this is pretty unlikely.
To say the truth, Justin (NB. ARC. Author of the season) says he invited Alexander and a "partner" or "follower".
If the king was so obsessed with the issue of security if Ptolemy was his personal bodyguard and "progefstis", then he follows the mysterious or "partner" can not be other than Ptolemy, who will had urged, of course, accept the invitation.
They were all ready and the plan would pass now in the execution phase.
The Proteus was solid glass, the wine glasses emptied and refilled and Ptolemy used the key position which had, his close relationship with the king to throw to drink the fatal poison: male.

The poison used was male, which was well known to ancient and quite widespread in the eastern provinces of the Persian Empire, as in Punjab, an area that was recently occupied by Alexander's army and even there they considered effective aphrodisiac.
Strabo, the fifteenth book, citing its Onisikrato, says the Carmania, the eastern province, where Alexander returned after the campaign in India, there were two hills, one of the salt and the other from male.
The symptoms of poisoning by arsenic are strong pains, organic shock, intense discomfort, excessive thirst and skin irritations.
Strong pain usually begin within one hour, which dissolves the body.
Diodorus of Sicily says Alexander expresses these specific symptoms at the symposium Midiou:
"... filling a large wineglass, got a gulp. At the same time she screamed as if caught in a stabbing pain [in my estimation, result of the male who had just gotten] and escort of friends led by the hand in the apartments ... "
Plutarch mentions the same symptoms, It not only accepts the. Arrian, more cautious, He mentions this as a reaction to the transfer of some unknown source, obviously the same as that of Diodorus, "Just emptied his glass, he felt a stabbing pain and was forced to pull out of the festival ".
Acute arsenic poisoning leads to death within hours. One of the practices recommended for the treatment of poisoning by arsenic is emesis or gastric lavage.
The drinking plenty of water also helps the kidneys to excrete the poison, but in most cases the male bring certain death.
Vomiting (intense discomfort) after the wine that he drank, Alexander will be felt for a moment a little better and that probably did the first severe symptoms milder, as they say doctors.

The Blythe, in a very detailed study on poisons, lists the symptoms of poisoning by arsenic, "... the tongue swells, There is intense thirst […] while generally observed and pains […] across the abdomen ... ".
The Blythe continues below, saying that a single dose of arsenic may not immediately result in death, but as the first stage manifested a prolonged and fatal disease.
"... A dose of arsenic trioxide may result in prolonged and deadly disease, the most famous example in medical practice that the suicide attempt of the Duke de Praslen, who attempted suicide, taking a dose of arsenic trioxide Wednesday 18 August 1847. The exact time of this action can not be ascertained, but the first symptoms began to manifest themselves in 10 pm. They preceded the familiar signs of vomiting, while the next day showed diarrhea, fainting and extremely weak pulse.
Preparation observed transient remission these symptoms, while the edges were very icy, his heart functioned intermittently and limp and there was a general collapse. Saturday presented lightweight fever, without pain or tenderness in the abdomen, vomiting or diarrhea. That day there was no urination. On Sunday, the patient complained of intense priximo throat and swallowing become difficult. The thirst was intense, language ruddy, as the mucosa of the mouth and the pharynx, and the patient had a burning sensation in the mouth to anus.

Hurt and were swollen abdomen, his skin was burning too, his pulse was rapid and erratic - sometimes stronger, sometimes weak - the gut should be relieved by injections, the amount of urine was very small. The night could not sleep at all.
The duke left his last breath in 4.35 PM Tuesday 24 the month, sixth day since I got sick. She had spirit clarity until the last. As he approached the end, his breathing became more and more sad, his body was frozen whole and had palpitations ... '.
Most of these symptoms are similar to those of Alexander, neither is Duke died immediately - the illness lasted a total of six days, while in the case of Alexander lasted little more. Of Course, the fitness of the Grand Conqueror, vomiting and wine can keep him alive longer, but the evil he had done.
The male in one finds in many forms, more or less strong. By vomiting clears the stomach and this is why we read in Basel Newspapers that Alexander met - as was done with Hephaestion.
The Basel Newspapers, though, They said that following the King consumed more food - as it did Hephaestion - and then deteriorated. Ptolemy, as catering manager and tester King, You should be responsible for his food. The male detect the symptoms that preceded the untimely death of Alexander confirmed by even more compelling evidence.

Until the 11th century, the male was the most powerful weapon that had been in the hands of would-be assassins.
Unlike ellevoro, who has a very bitter taste and fast strikes to the heart, the male may not discovered immediately, while symptoms caused not differ from those of malaria or cholera.
The thirst Alexander, the desire is always in the bathroom are in addition indication. Only the male has a great evil and this explains the many exhumations that took place in the late nineteenth and until the early 20th century, as it significantly inhibits the decomposition of the body of the deceased.
two sources, Plutarch and Curtius common, specifically state that this happened with Alexander's body and this despite the intense heat of summer Babylonian. As Blythe explains:
"... Often there is an intriguing maintaining the body of the deceased. When this happens, very suspicious, particularly if the body was exposed to such conditions, which normally should have quickly disintegrated. In the famous case of the European Spaichert pharmacist (1876), the body of his wife Spaichert unearthed eleven months after her death. While the coffin floated in a pool of water, the female body was like Mummy. That's because the body's organs contained arsenic, while the soil of the churchyard there peireiche this. Mr. P. Cox, defense attorney, He could not explain otherwise that may have thus maintain the body, under such conditions, unless it had made use of arsenic. And this item, along with other, it was important, to the convicted Spaichert ... "
Ptolemy not only managed to poison the Great Conqueror but also to master the next day - as guardian of the royal arches and official tester and servant.
In the last stage of his illness Alexander had flares and made several moves to the issue of succession, as to anoint his successor Perdiccas and deliver the official ring.
Yet, all sources without exception emphasize that the last stage of the king's illness was a strict control in the royal chamber and forbidden entry to most.
As for doctors, alerted, but they had lost the symptoms of the patient. is not n 'any wonder: until the late 19th century, as in the notorious case of arsenic in Meimprik 1880, often mislead doctors, not to discover the real cause of the victim's illness was poisoned with arsenic.

Moreover, hands of Alexander's doctors were "tied" after the ugly end of their unfortunate colleague, Owl's doctor, who was crucified after the sudden and unexpected death of Hephaistion, one year ago.
Doctors were reluctant to intervene, lest thereby deteriorating the situation of Alexander and threw them responsibility.
Ptolemy pulled the strings and only towards the end informed about developments soldiers and rank and let them enter the room of a dying king, but then it was too late.
It is interesting to note that Justin mentions suspicions were ordinary soldiers and the rank of 'conspiracy', while all sources describe a general situation of unrest in the army ....
... Ptolemy, as Iago, remained faithful Gen., the docile subordinates "can be with a smile and yet be bastard" ....
... The Ptolemy silence during this very important period of his life, let alone the life of the leader of, it is apokalyptikotati.
Besides Ptolemy occupied most of what would happen after.
Since no evidence that Alexander, as languished, he suspected that he had been the victim of conspiracy, although they talked last words that left his empire "in statist" or "the most worthy", like his comment that "his staff would prepare in honor of the most brilliant funeral rites", They could be interpreted as a kind of sardonic reference to the fact that Alexander had predicted that the issue of succession will lead to bloodshed ... ".

Some observations and thoughts ....
I would add that Alexander was not stupid. Each other. Anyone could be the press, been wrong to the betrayal of themselves "Proponents" by, the makers of.
But it is impossible not to understand that "poisoned".
Also, as mentioned above, and the author himself, the "male" poison was known in the ancient world ... especially in the Persian / Asian / East Indian.
So, was (logically must have been) completely and in detail and known symptoms.

And where there is a "known poison and symptoms" and are "antidotes".
Do not forget that the invasion of India, He wounded with poisoned arrow he Ptolemy and "with antidotes" who supplied the "experts in the region," the cured himself Alexander (that was quite satisfactory medical training of his youth and then worked diligently. Especially in poisons. So, had personal (diagnostic) view on the "what happened" and to him and to Hephaestion a year ago with EXACTLY THE SAME SYMPTOMS)…
Therefore, It was a "widespread conspiracy" Courtyard Alexander.
And very very "chopped disguised ', so causing the intelligence.
A cover-up that lasted (and keeps) centuries.
And after he had clarity for ten days and not "left" sudden, It is mildly paradoxical that did not define who will be his successor (of his children) and who - respectively - would be the Protector of the Throne as adulthood.

Only one way to explain this.
Alexander therefore understood very well that poisoned.
therefore he realized that his family was in danger. That there was no way to protect. neither this, nor the Throne.
He understood that there was no way even to send a message to warn the Olympics to take urgent and strict security measures.
He could not trust anyone.
If you understand that "understood" the more likely it was to find a sword in the heart.
The high strategy So intellect - even amid unbearable pain - captured the ONLY way it was at that time to "defend" even after death.
He had to keep the "imperial potential power» to the end and to "translate all in one last order" that no one could or would dare to "violated".
Play that the "game" of pretending that "did not understand anything".

By "historically unusual" command the Ring go 'interim statists ".
namely, the only way to become the "statist" (the strongest) it was war between them.
I.e., the mutual extermination.

So, They would have an interest to get his family to their place n 'raise "points of" everyone.

So they had motivation and interest to keep them alive.

Through this state of confusion, perhaps succeeded - even after death - to the Olympics the necessary time to "build and consolidate its power".
thus ensuring the successor Alexander from generation.
Something certainly not worked. Or maybe, worked "partially", He kept them alive for a time but were unable to exploit to "prevail" of their powerful opponents.
The ferocious wars of the guillotine stood Descendants of Alexander Generation ....



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