PRESS RELEASE 19/01/2015

Study On Residue Burial Monument Skeletal, Hill Kasta, Amphipolis

As has been mentioned in the press release of 19 December 2014, the completion of the study of makroskopikis bone material from the Tomb on the Hill Kasta, which has undertaken multi-disciplinary group of universities, Aristotle and Democritus, would be completed during January 2015. The Ministry had committed, an oral update, as proven in the related publications, that the communication of the results of the study would have a deadline of 20 January 2015.


The skeletal remains of the funerary monument, from the Hill Kasta Amphipolis correspond to 550 about bones, crushed and intact, a skull in pretty good condition, missing bones, that make up the face and an almost intact jawbone. No teeth, Apart from a second right progomfioy root teridonismeni, which was located in the mandible and displays advanced akrorriziko abscess.


From the 550 bones, counted, the 157, which resulted after careful dysfunctioning of different fragments scattered bones, systematically recorded on a database and an attempt was made to their performance in individual subjects.


Extra, identified animal bones, some of which seem to belong to long bones of equidae. Animal bones will be studied by a special zwoarchaiologo.


The minimum number of individuals, identified by the diagnostic skeletal remains correspond to five people, four of which are attributed to burials and a burning.


Burial of the dead are distinguished: One woman (person 1) (Pict. 1-2), two middle-aged men (people 2 and 3) (Pict. 3-6) and in a newborn person (person 4) (Pict. 7, 8).

Man 1: Woman

The woman, can safely be placed in age over 60 years. Gender determination was based on specific indicators, relating:

1) in the bones of the pelvis (the basin) (left hip * Indent, right prwtiaia sulcus, left and right sciatic camber lagwnia Crest, body and thorn sciatic),
2) in the bones of the skull (glabellar lines, bulky, slope of the frontal, frontal tuberosity, lower temporal line, mastoeideis lugs, occipital Ridge),
3) in the mandible (geneio, mandibular angle, branches),
4) in the morphological conformation of the bones (measurements of long bone).


The determination of age was based:
1) part of the left symphysis pubis (anterior portion of the basin),
2) to the extent synostewsis of cranial seams,
3) the sharp tooth prothanatia loss of rear and on both sides of the lower jaw,
4) in the presence of metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis and the HYPEROSTOSIS frontalis (Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna: thickening of the walls of the skull, Interior of frontal bone, which is usually asymptomatic and is associated with hormonal disorders that often occur in women after menopause),
5) at intense degenerative lesions, especially in the spine, and at enthesewn and osteopoiiseis in the long bones and cartilage on the sides.


In what,What concerns the stature of old woman, After the combined application of different methods on measurements of long bone, is estimated at 157 EC. The female skeleton seems to have attributed most of the bones found in kibwtioschimo Tomb, from the 7,8 m. from the top of the cabin and down, i.e. 1 m. over the kibwtioschimoy flooring.

Persons 2 and 3 : Two men, 35 until 45 years.
The two people (2 and 3), of the four, they had accept burial, can safely be attributed to men, on the basis of:
1) of anatomical points on the pelvic bones (the basin) (left and right pubic bone and in particular abdominal bow, ypoibiki cavity and the Middle bone surface, left prwtiaia sulcus, left and right sciatic camber, left and right acetabulum, sacral morphology for person 2 and right sciatic camber and sacral morphology for person 3)
2) the morphological conformation of the long bones (measurements of long bone).

The two men are relatively close age, in the category of 35 until 45 years: One, at the beginning and the second, towards the end of this category.
The determination of age for the person 2 was based:

1) on two ibikes adhesions (anterior portion of the basin),
2) in degenerative lesions of the pelvic surface of the left wtoeidoys (the area of the basin that articulates with the sacrum),
3) full synostewsi of epiphyseal edge of sternikwn in both collarbones.

The determination of the age range for the person 3, based in right pubic symphysis.
It is noted that on the two youngest men (person 2) bear traces of incisions (cut marks) on the left upper thoracic, on two sides and cervical vertebra, (Pict. 9-11) as well as in the lower surface of the edge of the left clavicle sternikoy. Probably identical with aggressive knocks-injuries, that should be made by contact with sharp instrument e.g.. machairidio, and caused the death of, as not distinguished signs of healing.
The second man (person 3), a little bigger in relation to the first, has indications of transversal, fully epoylwmenoy, fracture on the right of the grandstand, relatively close in right wrist. Extra, both men show degenerative osteoarthritis and spondylarthritidas lesions at different points of their skeleton.
In what,What concerns the stature of men after the combined application of different methods on measurements of long bone, is estimated at 168 EC. for the person 2 and in 162-163 EC. for the person 3.

Persons 4 and 5
The fourth person is a newborn infant (neonate). The determination of age was based on the length and width measurements of the left brachial and left lower jaw. The determination of sex to that person not deemed possible as the morphological discrimination of sex in the bones of newborns is not clear.
l_15611 l_15599 l_15600 l_15601 l_15602 l_15603 l_15605 l_15606 l_15607 l_15608 l_15609 The fifth person is represented by little scrap, just nine (9), especially long bones, (Pict. 12, 13) flying all distortions (lateral mikrorwgmes and sometimes intense deformation) but and discolorations (off-white and blue/gray) they meet in full combustion sarkwmenoy dead cases and probably belongs to an adult person.
The overview to find the skeletal remains of their scraping advocates from anthropogenic intervention, which seems that concerned both inside the site 4, and inside the kibwtioschimoy Tomb.


The skeletal remains of the funerary monument of Hill Kasta, In addition to the macroscopic methods, I applied a series of analytical methods for better documentation, but also for the completion of more extensive information, the pathological changes, in diet, in the place of origin and affinity of these people, i.e. If it is for people who were born and raised in Amphipolis or for people who have moved from somewhere else during their lifetime and buried in this tomb.

Analytical methods include:
radiological study bone for locating pathological lesions, that is not macroscopically distinct but also for a fuller description of the already recorded e.g.. HYPEROSTOSIS frontalis person 1, incisions-injuries (cut marks) individual 2, individual fracture epoylwmeno 3.

  • histology-microscopic techniques e.g.. observed yperostwsis case, and wherever else necessary.
  • analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in order to identify the type of proteins that consumed the specific people.
  • strontium analyses that due to the absence of teeth will be restricted only at prices that will result from bone samples.
  • palaiogenetikes analyses (ancient DNA) the purpose of the description of biological and genetic history of individuals. In the context of the analyses will examine the possible blood kinship of three individuals. But the tafonomiki presence of long bone, the absence of teeth and skull fragments in men 2 and 3 used in the analyses of ancient DNA, may prevent the obtaining of sufficient quantity of endogenous nuclear DNA for successful and accurate identification of consanguinity. In people 4 and 5, due to limited sample volume and the impact of high temperature combustion due, in person 5, will not apply the above methods.
  • AMS chronologisewn application in samples of human bone and animal sygkeimenwn, will complement the picture of succession of burials, which cannot be reconstituted through the excavation process.

Both the macroscopic and analytical methods will be applied to a large number of skeletons, about 300, from the cemeteries of Amphipolis, under the two-year research program, sponsored by the YPPOA and performed by large research team led the ladies in. Triantafillou, Assistant Professor of prehistoric archaeology and Osteoarchaiologias, Department Of History And Archaeology, AUTH and x. Papagerogopoulou, Assistant Professor of physical anthropology, Department Of History And Ethnology, Physical Anthropology Lab, DEMOCRITUS UNIVERSITY OF THRACE. The group consists of undergraduate, Graduate and postdoctoral students of Aristotle and Democritus, but Universities and internationally recognised external partners.

This way you will get valuable comparative material, so:
1) These skeletal remnants, from the extremely important funerary monument of Kasta Hill to join a broader population total,
2) the results of the analytical methods in archaeological ensembles to be interpreted in conjunction with the results of the study a total population makroskopikis,
3) be made clear that the anthropological findings should be studied within the archaeological, social and historical context, offered only through the systematic study of syneyrimatwn and the comprehensive approach of the period.

Image Captions:
Picture 1: Comparative representation of one's bones 1
Picture 2: Comparative representation of one's bones 1 with photos of bones
Picture 3: Comparative representation of one's bones 2
Picture 4: Comparative representation of one's bones 2 with photos of bones
Picture 5: Comparative representation of one's bones 3
Picture 6: Comparative representation of one's bones 3 with photos of bones
Picture 7: Comparative representation of one's bones 4
Picture 8: Comparative representation of one's bones 4 with photos of bones
Picture 9: Person 2, left front side with traces 3 sections (cut marks) (Number of bone, #31.1)
Picture 10: Person 2, left front side, detail from the bevel (cut mark) in the neck (Number of bone , #31.1)
Picture 11: Person 2, the left side with a trace of intersection (cut mark) on the upper lip of the body
Picture 12: Person 5, bones that have undergone high-temperature effect, After burning
Picture 13: Person 5, bones that have undergone high-temperature effect, After burning

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