| The battle of Issus (333 e.g.)

The Alexander while he was in Mallo, He learned that Darius Camping with all its troops in Swchoys. This area belongs to Assyria and away from the Assyrian Gates about two stations. Therefore the partners gathered and announced the news about Darius and the army. They again urged him to start without delay. He praised and dissolved the meeting. The next day, He began to meet Darius and the Persians. Within two days from the time he passed the gates, encamped near the town Myriandro. In the night erupted storm with rain and strong wind and Alexander was forced to stay in camp.

From the other, Darius the army was winning time. He had chosen an open plain Assyrian, that could accommodate the large army and was suitable for cavalry maneuvers. Amyntas, son of Antiochus, who had defected from Alexander advised him not to leave the area, which was so spacious for the troops and supplies Persian. So he stayed there Darius. Meanwhile as Alexander delayed much in Tarsus, due to illness and Soloi, where sacrifice and made parades losing precious time fighting the highlanders Cilicians, Darius changed his mind. Moreover, He was ready to believe that it was more pleasant. They roused and minds are avlokolakes and believed that Alexander no longer wants to proceed, but he hesitated just learned that he is approaching. They stir everyone from all sides saying that it would trample on the cavalry to Macedonian army. However Amyntas insisted that Alexander will get anywhere is learned that Darius and urged waiting there. but convinced of the worst estimates, because at that time it was more pleasant. Maybe some divine power led him to that plain, because neither the cavalry especially benefited, nor the number of soldiers, and Alexander and the army easily defeated. Moreover, They were destined to lose the Persian hegemony in Asia by the Macedonians, as the Medes had lost by the Persians and earlier Assyrians by the Medes. O Darius crossed the mountains near the so-called Sleeveless gates, He proceeded to Issus and without being noticed, It was found in the back of Alexander. Entered Issus, where he killed with horrible torture ill Macedonians who had remained there. The next day, proceeded to the river Pinar. When Alexander heard that Darius is back, not considered reliable news.

So put on triakontoro (ship with thirty oars) some companions and sent to Issus, to check on the spot if the news is true. They learned very easily that the Persians are where the sea formed the bay. They sent a message to Alexander that is holding Darius. He again called a meeting of generals, their ilarchous and the commanders of the allies and urged them to have courage, as already earlier battles had a good result and the Macedonians would fight as winners vs. losers. Even he told them that the divine power is the best quarterback, He struck the mind of Darius getting his troops from the open plain and the cornered in the narrow passage that was that we had to develop the phalanx and the number of Persians will not help them in battle, because their physical condition and their moral fortitude was not depending on him. Alexander added yet, that the Macedonians of old practiced martial arts with many dangers and people were free, They will fight against the Persians and Medes who has long lived and highly self-indulgent life were slaves. And those Greeks will fight against Greeks, They will not do it for the same reasons· they will fight alongside Darius, They will risk their lives just for the money, while those who will fight the Macedonians will voluntarily defend Greece. As for the Barbarians, the Thracians, the Paionians, Illyrians and Agrianes, the most robust and well-trained European nations, They will be applied to the less skilled and more self-indulgent peoples of Asia.

Alexander_the_GreatEnd, Alexander himself would head toward Darius. He explained that these were their advantages in battle and say that their prizes in this race will be long. Because they would not defeat the satraps of Darius, the cavalry lined the Granicus and twenty thousand foreign mercenaries, but the flower Persian, the Medes and all the other nations enslaved to the Medes and Persians inhabit Asia and the very great king this. And after this battle, the only thing that would stay them, It would be the domination of the whole of Asia and the end of their labors more. Apart from these, reminded them of the glory of their common achievements and even, if there was a great personal achievement, the reminiscent and this, with him who did it. He described modestly what he had done himself in battles. They also reminded that the Xenophon and the Ten Thousand, although there were similarities in the number or, or other preparations· The myriad had no cavalry, nor Thessaly, nor Boeotian, nor Macedonian, nor Peloponnesian or Thracian, nor archers or slingers, except a few Rhodians and Cretans and those who organized the makeshift Xenophon in the risk. And yet they escaped the great king and his entire army to Babylon, They defeated all the people who were blocking the road and reached the Black Sea. He even said too many other suits telling a brave prince to brave men to give them courage before the battle. They surrounded him, They shook his hand and urged him to start immediately.

O Alexander ordered the soldiers to dine· then sent to the gates precursors few horsemen and archers to check in advance the path that led behind the gates. During the night immediately attacked the gates with all of the Army. Around midnight possessed all passages. The rest of the night the army rested there, on the stones, Carefully placing external guards. By dawn, He descends from the gates to the street. Where the road was narrow, led them arrayed in close line, but where open paretasse army convoy in, placing battalions of soldiers one after another, until they reach the right the mountain and to the left the sea. The cavalry had earlier placed after the infantry. Once they arrived in the open, the army arrayed for battle. On the right wing near mountain arrayed the contingent of infantry and his lieutenants, led by Nicanor, the son of Parmenion, next to them the order of the public and then the battalion of Perdiccas. Left, first placed the battalion Amyntas, then Ptolemy and after the Meleager. The Krateros appointed captain of infantry of the left side and Parmenion entire horn. even took command not removed from the sea, for not encircled by the barbarians, which flank so to their large number. principle.

The battle of Issus- painting by Altdorfer 1529 pnakothiki MunichThe battle

Once Darius learned that Alexander approaching and ready to give battle, He spent about thirty thousand horsemen and twenty thousand about light infantry on the opposite bank of the river Pinar, to line up in peace the rest of his army. Placed in front of their soldiers about thirty thousand Greek mercenaries, opposite the Macedonian phalanx. Next to them on each side, about thirty thousand of the so-called Kardakkes, who were also soldiers. So fit area, if they lined up in convoy. On the left side, near mountain, across from the right side of Alexander, placed around twenty thousand. Some of them, They moved to the rear of the army of Alexander. The mountain where paratachtikan formed at a point cavity, like bay· then, Had a curve, which pushed them arrayed at the foot, behind the right wing Alexander. The remaining fine and soldiers paratachtikan against nations, behind the Greek mercenaries and their phalanx arrayed against barbarians, so deeply, that they are useless. It is said that the whole army of Darius consisted of six hundred thousand combatants men.

Alexander saw that little bit more the area widens in front placed in series cavalry so-called partners Thessalians and Macedonians. Them kept them close to the right wing, while he sent the Peloponnesians and the other left allies in Parmenion.

When Darius arrayed the convoy, He gave the signal to return the horsemen who had placed in front of the river, to cover the maneuvers of the army of. Most of them, put them in the right horn, near the sea, where the area was more suitable for cavalry. Another part of the Left led, near mountain. but there, it seemed that it would be useless, because of lack of space. So he ordered many of them come with their horses in the right wing. The Darius himself was in the middle of the party, as the law of the Persian kings. Xenophon, his son jack, He was the reason for this placement.

Meanwhile, Alexander noted that almost all the Persian cavalry moved to the left of, near the sea. But there was only deploy the Peloponnesians and the rest of the allied cavalry. So He sent quickly to the left the Thessalians horsemen, ordering them not to go in front of the array, to not reveal the moving enemies, but to move hidden behind the phalanx. Placed in front of the riders to the right precursors, led by Protomacho and Paionians, led by Ariston. In front of pedestrians, put archers, led by Antiochus. even arrayed them Agrianes led Attalus and some horsemen in corner, near the mountain that stood behind him. So, on the right side of the column was divided into two parts, one of which looked to Darius and the main body of the Persians, over the river and the other to the arrayed mountain, across their backs. On the left, in front of the infantry, placed Cretans and Thracians archers led by Sitalkes and in front of the left side of the cavalry. Foreign mercenaries were placed behind all. But because Alexander considered the column to the right was sparse and the Persians far seemed to transcend, iles ordered two partners to leave the vehicle and move secretly to right. These were the Anthemusias with ilarcho the Peroida, son menestheus and called Lefgaia, with ilarcho the Pantordano, son Kleandrou. archers, some Agrianes and Greek mercenaries led in front of the right part and proexeteine ​​the convoy until the horn Persian. The Persians who had been placed on the mountain not attempted descent· Alexander ordered Agrianes and few archers make raid against them. Easily forced to abandon the foothills and mountain resort. Alexander then decided to have the ability to use them placed there to complete the phalanx. At this point, held that the three hundred horsemen sufficient.

Battle of Issus - map faction forces - πηγή /

Having placed them so, Alexander ordered the convoy to proceed for some time with small stops· their progress closely resembled walk. Once the barbarians tachtopoiithikan to their original positions, Darius did not went further. He remained on the river, which was in many places steep, building trench at points that seemed most vulnerable to assault. This has shown to Alexander and his entourage that Darius was defeated psychology. When the two camps had already approached, Alexander horseback skirted lining, rousing his men to look brave. Called to praise depending not only their heads and their captains and ilarchous and foreign mercenaries who were best known due to some office or some exploits. From everywhere, the screaming would not delay, but to attack enemies. He still leads a faction, principle marching, although already saw the army of Darius. This, lest diasaleftei class in convoy and driven to dissolution, walking faster. Once they arrived within striking distance, first the right wing led by Alexander himself quickly entered the river. The aim was to surprised the Persians at the speed of attack to limit the losses Persian arrows and accelerate melee. Things were as imagined Alexander. Once started the melee, the left part of the Persian army fled. At this point, They achieved a brilliant victory Alexander and sequenced. The Greek mercenaries but they are fighting with Darius, They attacked the Macedonian phalanx, whose right wing had begun throwing. Because Alexander the rush to get to the river and start the battle from the close quarters, already pushed the Persians who were lined up at this point. The middle of the lineup but could not move so fast· in many places even fell on the steep banks and was unable to keep the original class. The Greek mercenaries then hit the convoy where you saw that has more losing its cohesion. There they played a lot of things· mercenaries trying to xanasproxoun Macedonians river and keep winning, already flying away· Macedonians again did not want to betray the apparent success of Alexander and destroy the reputation of the phalanx, hitherto rumored as invincible. Then woke competition between Macedonians and southern Greek. Then Ptolemy killed, son of Seleucus, fighting bravely and about one hundred and eighty eminent Macedonians.

Meanwhile the battalions of the right faction saw that the Persians, who were before them, permits already in flight. then they turned against the foreign mercenaries of Darius, where part of the phalanx accept strong pressure· their repulsed by the river, outflanking parts of the Persian army had broken, attacked from the side and massacred mercenaries. The Persian horsemen located opposite the Thessalians did not keep their positions across the river, but they went and attacked by bravery in Thessalians. Εκεί, It became very tough cavalry battle· Persians fled, only when they realized that Darius was leaving and half had completely dispersed and katasfagei the phalanx. then anymore, it became apparent that all fled. During the retreat the horses the Persians suffered from heavy armed riders· and the riders themselves but, as were many and retreated disorderly and fearful through narrow passages, mockery among themselves and thus suffers more damage than that caused their enemies. Their Thessalians persecuted bravely· so, during the retreat killed so those riders and pedestrians.

Darius just saw that left faction panicked with the advent of Alexander and cut off from the rest of lineup, He walked away with the first, as he was on his chariot. Ran as smooth ground when fleeing the, He was safe on his chariot· But upon arriving at the gorge and inaccessible area, threw kandy (mantle) and shield, He dropped the bow into the chariot, left it there and went on horseback fleeing the. That there was captured by Alexander, because he rapidly fell night. Alexander kept as light, She chased him with all his strength· but when it got dark and he could not see in front of, He turned again into the camp. But he took the chariot of Darius and, therewith, shield, the kandy and bow. From the other, delayed the chase, because just saw the first rift in convoy, He turned back and did not start until after he saw that foreign mercenaries and cavalry turns away from the river. From the Persians, They killed the Arsames, the Reomithris and Atizyis, leaders of the cavalry at Granicus· even, the Safakis, satrap of Egypt and Vouvakis, Persian official. Of the others killed about a hundred thousand pedestrians and more than ten thousand horsemen. even says Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, which then followed Alexander, that persecutors Darius met a canyon and passed clicking on the corpses. The Darius camp immediately seized by raid and captured his mother, his wife, who was also his sister, young son, two daughters and a few nobles Blinds sequence. Because the other Persians had sent their wives and their belongings in Damascus. And though Darius had sent to Damascus in more money and whatever else gets him a king, to live lavishly on campaigns. So the camp were not more than three thousand talents. The money were in Damascus he took shortly after Parmenion, He went there for that purpose. So ended this battle, the Maimaktiriona month, when Athens was archon the Nikokratis.

The next day

The next day, Alexander despite his injury in the thigh by sword, He visited the wounded and having been kidepse majestically dead, lined entire phalanx in the most impressive way to lead to war. Those found personally that excelled in battle, the consensus that existed for their accomplishments, She honored them with his words and with donations commensurate with their value. Appointed satrap of Cilicia to Valakro, son of Nicanor, one of the royal bodyguards. In his place, the bodyguards, placed the next, his son Dionysios. Guild master Ptolemy, son of Seleucus, killed in battle, appointed Polyperchon, son Simmia. Residents of Solon, from the tax imposed, gave fifty talents had not yet returned and give hostages.

The Family of Darius before Alexander - painting by Paolo Veronese 1570even made sure the mother, the wife and children of Darius. Some of those who wrote the history of Alexander say that the very night he returned from the pursuit of Darius, He headed to the scene of Darius, which was to use the same. So nearby heard women crying and analog noise· He asked to learn what these women and why were staying so close. Someone replied: "King, It is the mother, the wife and children of Darius. They learned that you got his bow and basil kandy and that comes back the shield and mourn, because they think that Darius died ". When he heard these Alexander, sent a partner, the Leonnatou, with a mandate to tell them that Darius lives and that the flight of dropped weapons and kandy on his chariot, and that only those objects held by Alexander. The generals Leonattos went on stage, He said what happened to Darius and even that Alexander will give them all the royal values ​​and the addresses queens· This is because not personally fighting against Darius, but according to the laws for the sovereignty of Asia. They say Ptolemy and Aristobulus. It is also said something else· The next day, Alexander himself entered the scene, having only companion Hephaistion partner. The mother of Darius did not understand which one is king, because they were dressed in the same way. So she went ahead and bowed Hephaestion, she seemed more majestic. But Hephaestion made it back and someone from the environment showed Alexander telling her what. This embarrassed about the mistake and fell. Then Alexander said she is not wrong, because he too is Alexander. I just mention the fact, nor as true but not as completely fake. But if that made things, commend Alexander regretted that women and showed such confidence and appreciation to his friend. but it may simply be the authors felt that Alexander could speak and behave so. Even if this is the case again commend.

O Darius escaped into the night, with few of the sequence of. Spend a day to assemble the Persians and foreign mercenaries who survived the battle. Collect around four thousand and with them quickly moved to the city Thapsako and the River Euphrates. Hurry to put the river between himself and Alexander. Amyntas, son of Antiochus, the Thymondas, his son Mentor, the Aristomidis of Feres, the Vianoras from Akarnania, all defection, together with their soldiers (eight thousand people around as it was lined, They came down from the mountains and arrived in Tripoli in Phoenicia. There by the ships which arrived from Lesbos and had now pulled ashore, They grabbed what they believed to be sufficient for their transport. The dropped in water, They burned the rest in Naval Stations, to not facilitate the persecution and fled to Cyprus, that way, in Egypt. There a little later, something cobbled together Amyntas and killed locals. Pharnabazus and Autophradates awaited advance in Chios. They placed guards on the island, sent some ships in Kos, Bodrum and the same as the one hundred most seaworthy went to Sifnos. Εκεί, She went and found the king of Sparta, Agis, on a trireme. He asked money to make war and demanded to send the Peloponnese as more army and navy could. That moment, came the news of the battle at Issus. They were surprised by the announcement. Pharnabazus with twelve galleys and fifteen hundred foreign mercenaries went to Chios, because he was afraid of the announcement of the defeat rebel Chians. Agis got from Autophradates thirty silver talents ten triremes. Hippias commissioned to lead them to his brother, Agesilaus, in Tainaro. He ordered him to tell Agesilaus give sailors their entire salary and go as soon as possible in Crete, to settle things there. He remained in principle the islands and later went to Autophradates Bodrum. Alexander appointed satrap of the hollow Syria Menon, his son Kerdimma and gave him to guard the country the allied cavalry. He went to Phoenicia. On the way he met the barracks, son Girostratou, King of rows and the neighboring region. The Girostratos followed his Autophradates voyage, like other kings of Cypriots and Phoenicians. The barracks but, when he met Alexander, crowned with the gold wreath and handed the island of Arados, rich and happy city Fennel, built on land opposite the rows, the Sigona, Mariammi the city and the rest commanding.



2. Arrian "Anabasis of Alexander Book II 'performance in Modern Greek from the book" Greeks "of Ulysses versions Chatzopoulos.

Leave a Reply