POLIOCHNI LIMNOU (5000 E.G.) – THE CITY WITH THE OLDEST BOYLEYTIRIO IN THE WORLD (3000 CA BC)
The ἀrchaiotero, on the 2.500 e.g., Parliament in the world, is it ἀnakalyfthike by ystera ekeino to systimatikes and polyeteis ἀnaskafes of Italikis Of Ἀrchaiologikis in Poliochni, Lemnos ........... However, the Parliament of Poliochne, as is known, ἀpotelese public building aggregations of inhabitants and precursor of the imoy Ekklisias of Ki ochi τῶν simerinwn Parliaments. The construction, are kept in elegant dome, accompanied by information on the part of the Istoriko-canéda simantikou ἀrchaiologikou area.
The eforos Klasikwn Ἀrchaiotitwn Nomou Lesbos and Chairman of Ellinwn τῶν Ἀglaia Enwsis Archeologists Ἀrchontidoy ἀnefere home simantikwtera historical stoicheia, it connected with the ἀrchaioteri wrganwmeni city of Eyrwpis, the Poliochni, "The Poliochne is the best example of that period called" Trwikos and Politismos ' becomes more simantiki ἀkoma, ochi is a wrganwmeni why only city with streets, public areas, with exairetikes Idiwtikes oIkies, with dioikitika and exairetes housing centers, the ἀpodidontai and opoies in ἀrchigoys in ἀrchigo of Poliochne, But why in this the city already from the 3000 e.g.. and until the 1600 e.g.. leitoyrgei ὁ ἀrchaioteros chwros dialogue in World. Edw was born in semen of dialogue, the sperm are today onomazoyme Republic emeis.»
itan chwros when residents of the dialegontan between the, syzitwntas home city of public issues. Synepws itan not Parliament (Conference ἀntiproswpwn), but of the imoy Ekklisia (olwn Congress of politwn).
MORE ABOUT POLIOCHNI
Poliochni is an archaeological site on the eastern shore of Lemnos, near kaminia, built at the dawn of the Neolithic period to the Aegean, the 4th or 5th Millennium BC. Located directly opposite Troy but Troy will be built one thousand years later, When I anymore poliochni will have evolved into an urban settlement with 1.500 residents with rectangular stone houses, protective wall, squares, Wells, streets, public buildings and Parliament.
Poliochni came to light by the excavations of the Italian archaeological School of Athens, headed by then Director of Della Seta (Della Seta) the 1930 and key aide of excavator Bernabo Brea. Along with Troy, located on opposite coasts, is the most famous Acropolis of the 3rd millennium b.c.. throughout the Northern Aegean.
THE MODEL OF THE CITY
Surrounded by walls, you have commanding form only on the West side, where was greater by the need to protect the Foundation from erosion of nearby river. It seems indeed that poliochni, at least at the beginning, We do not need military defence. The city flourished a Pacific population thousand inhabitants, They delved into during the day with agriculture and animal husbandry, While the evening return to settlement, thing they do even today farmers of the region. This habit must have been created between them a form of rudimentary social organization, the wording, i.e., common rules have to be respected in the city, but out of this, the common fields or to those who may have been granted by the community to each family nucleus.
The digging of wells, built with investment, in depth reached over 9 measures, the construction and maintenance of the walls, roads and pipelines to collect the rainwater, flooring squares where meet residents to spend their free time or on the occasion of feasts, It was all measures taken, demanded a total agreement and a place where they could discuss and make decisions. For this purpose built in Poliochni called Deputies.
Thanks to the processing and handling of metals poliochni, built just across the Strait of the Hellespont, He was the oldest urban center, in Europe's first commercial port. Was the heart of the region of b. Aegean.
The ruins of Poliochne demonstrate that in b.. Aegean developed a prehistoric culture completely autonomous from them till now known (Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean).
Right after the main entrance, on the Western side of the wall that surrounds the city, found a great Chamber with its stone benches along its entire length and pitch of speech in the Center, that is probably the strongest indication that there was a democratic organization of society then. Prof. Santo Tine (Santo Tine) who is the Director of excavations in Poliochne writes:
"Named deputies immediately based on the example of buildings of the classical era that had those levels at which, Unlike the theaters and auditoriums, could take place a limited number of persons: the representatives of the community of citizens. "
The Parliament of Poliochne except that precedes almost 2000 years from their counterparts of the classical era, It also represents the oldest testimony in Europe and in the world, a construction suitable to accommodate people who had been called to discuss the problems of the whole and to determine the common cultural and religious norms. In "this way can be considered the forerunner of the House of our time.
The drainage of the yellow period and in depth public well
The mansion 605 built around 2000 e.g.. He sees in the central square and was the home of the richest and most powerful in relation to all other common citizens who continued to reside in houses very simple and with limited articulation. The Parliament had lost its original function anymore so that the East benches had disappeared with the construction of a wall. These are all signs that make clear the fact that democratic power in Poliochni was replaced by an authoritarian.
The gold treasure of Poliochni at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
The treasure of Poliochne
Inter alia in Poliochni found a treasure of gold jewelry, that is an exquisite sample of advanced and power accumulation goldsmiths and wealth on the island. The thesaurus is very similar to the famous "Priam's Treasure" found in Troy the Schliemann and looks that made from the same workshop. Today the treasure of Poliochne is at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens the end of town after successive seismic disasters will come 400 years before the destruction of Troy of Priam, around 1600 e.g..
The main Barn of the blue period
The periods of the city
Poliochni dubbed "eptapolis" why anaskaftikan seven consecutive cities in seven successive layers. Each is more advanced technologically than the previous and it appears mainly in the manufacture of vessels. That is why the Brea Bernabo named according to their color, betrayed and their perfection: Black, Kyani, Green, Red, Yellow, Brown (or Gray) and Violet.
Some of them correspond to periods of civilization of Troy. Than,What seems, the two adjacent cultures had little to do and parallel evolution. Though, the first period of Poliochne has no counterpart in Troy, but it is Premier of this. And as they evolve both poliochni remains increasingly thriving and richer than modern of Troy.
Poliochni I (Black 3500-3200 e.g.)
Black (or Black) period of Poliochne, the prehistoric town discovered in Eastern Lemnos, near kaminia, dubbed the first phase of the city, the proastiki, corresponding to the period 3500-3200 e.g.. According to the dating of the Italian archaeological School of Athens. proastiki phase of Poliochne is long and includes many layers. Farmers and ranchers inhabitants live in large oval or circular huts as diameter and 7 m., which were reconstructed many times on stone foundations. Their settlement was located in the middle of a hill and had an area of about 5 acres.
Residents construct vessels darkening, from which derives the name of the, decorated with fine lines, Recalling as well. Not even aware of the copper. Their tools are stone and bone and are quite sophisticated. We are at the last Neolithic period, shortly before the invasion of new technology of metals.
In addition to the settlement, residents there and in the surrounding rural region, as can be seen from three ftwchikoys tombs found 1930-31 under Avenue or Holy Trinity, close to Poliochni. Chronologically belong on the verge between black and blue period. Interestingly enough, there were found fragments of white marble figurines kykladikwn, something that indicates early contacts with the South Aegean before the creation of Poliochne.
The same period in the rest of Lemnos human activity has been detected only in Myrina and is of a similar cultural level. Troy still no. In the area of Trwadas there is only one Neolithic village in present-day Kum Tepe.
Poliochni II (Kyani 3200-2700 e.g.)
The Blue period of Poliochne, the prehistoric town discovered in Eastern Lemnos, near kaminia, It is the second phase of the city and is the first season that the townspeople know copper. Divided into two subperiods: the archaic (3200-3000 e.g.) and the Advanced (3000-2700 e.g.), According to the dating of the Italian archaeological School of Athens.
H knowledge of copper helped in the rapid development of the city. It is not excluded that Troy was created from the need of peoples of Asia minor to have a port for communicating with the peoples of the Aegean and Thrace, but with Poliochni, that was the intermediate station of the Thracians and of honor Aegean during their outings to the Black Sea.
Quickly from the small village with oval Kalyvia comes in an advanced state of Azure Poliochne. She initially has arched and later rectangular houses and is fortified with a whopping wall stairs both by land and by sea. This means that the rich residents feared enemy attacks.
The city is constantly expanding inland, westward. Apply the "linear" urban system, IE built construction islets (districts) unequal size. This period formed the two districts of Metalworkers, which will be maintained as the yellow period.
The city's population reaches 800 residents. Built new, most spacious wall, to cover the new districts. What we feared its inhabitants; The locals inland or external Limnioys Raiders-pirates; Rather both. Maybe some oppression to the rural population of the island, not yet possessed the knowledge of copper, to create reactions at times.
The same period in Lemnos there are a large number of settlements, over 15, the strongest of which were on Koukonesi and Myrina. Certainly among them will have been periods of peace but also periods of intense competition. Therefore the existence of defensive wall is fully justified. A fire, which destroyed a part of the city in the middle of the period (around 3000 e.g.), perhaps due to some sort of RAID.
Advanced stage (3000-2700 e.g.)
However after the fire the city life evolves dramatically, so the blue period divided into archaic and sophisticated. Impression make great public buildings, the Barn and the House of Parliament, manufactured in the last phase of the blue period, the most advanced.
This is a pioneering public constructions, apparently shared, leading thinking in forms of democratic political organization. To make the bold assumption that the fire that destroyed the archaic Kyani Poliochni came from some revolt, the result of which was to acquire more ' democratic ' face in the next phase; Unfortunately there is no evidence to substantiate this view.
The city has gained bronze machining workshops, to which manufactured mostly nails (needles), hooks and chisels. At the same time kept and traditional stone, bone and pottery tools, which could not yet be replace. From these we learn that wove and egnethan wool (found sfontylia and bobs), katergazontan wood (found hammers, stabbing, knives, hinges, saws, razors etc.), stored and processed foods before the Cook (found flails, mortars, ovens and clay vessels of various types: pitchers, boiling pans, jugs, mugs, froytieres etc.), cultivated cereals (found sickles from Flint). The clay still coined by hand, since they were unaware of the wheel. The end of the Cyan Poliochne was steep, After a flood destroyed the city.
Proportions of this period of Poliochne found with Troy j, hot Lesbos, Emporio of Chios, with settlements in Thessaly and Viotia. Therefore, There was some form of contact between the residents of the two shores of the Aegean.
Certainly poliochni had a good intermediate position in this maritime communication, which certainly exploit. Later myths (e.g.. the argonautic expedition) show that memories of the Greeks were elements of communication.
The rapid development of the town shows great commercial activity and apparently shipping.
Among the buildings found in Poliochni blue there is a period which was characterized as a Bouleuterion. According to Professor and researcher of the Aegean Christo Douma, There was the first and oldest Parliament in Europe.
The Xr. Doumas argued that residents of Poliochne had developed advanced forms of social organisation which may qualify as the earliest forms of democracy. Specifically distinguished two classes of inhabitants in the city. Farmers-farmers and craftspeople-traders. The latter can be divided into four "guilds": Metalworkers, the builders (carpenters), Mariners (merchants) and keramoyrgoys (potters).
The class of artisans had however more economic and therefore political power, but never managed a Guild to dominate on the other. So were forced to find forms of cooperation such, that only democracy offers. The existence of a building, which was a capacity 50 about people and that only as a place of Assembly can be classified, confirms the above thoughts. Therefore, is not overwhelming the rating of this building as a Bouleuterion.
So, the Republic was born in Poliochne; Archaeological clues lead effortlessly in this conclusion. Though it may not be assertive in this issue, It is true that the oldest building which could be characterized as a Bouleuterion was built there, located on the seafront of Poliochne, before 4.500 years.
Poliochni III (Green 2700-2600 e.g.)
The Green Poliochni evolved into big city. It has an area of 13-15 acres and a population of around 1300 residents. The residences of consisted of two or more rooms and were relatively uniform. Metallurgists dwelled in a separate quarter. new wall Built in the West to accommodate new homes, which means that the population of the city rose, perhaps from new residents. Though, the technique shows signs of decline, While there is a large amount of pottery imported from mainland Greece. An earthquake halted development of little town. Moreover, this period did not last more than a century. Feature is that the Parliament changes using this period and a part is covered by a newer building. The ' democratic ' period seems to be coming to an end.
Poliochni IV (Red 2600-2400 e.g.) contemporary of Troy I
During this period the city expanded across the Western side of the Hill, sample of financial soundness of its inhabitants. As it expands and the wall, boosted with semicircular bastions. The technique of construction improved, but the aesthetic began to decay, After the well-being of their residents permits to import, Despite making utensils. The decoration of ceramics is simplest and most massive production. There is a more pronounced influence of prwtoelladikwn cultural centers and is an established contact with Crete, the Cyclades, Boeotia and Thessaly.
The copper processing industry has improved, having found bronze knives, chisels, nails with head, hooks and mainly molds manufacturing tools with the groundbreaking method of molten wax. For the first time found stone ynia from plow, which means that systematically worked the land.
Trade becomes more organized anymore, as evidenced by clay and bronze seals with which mark the goods. Also, There are weights of Hematite, by weighing the goods. The weights are imported from Asia minor and the Aegean Sea. This means that standard weights were and there were obviously and local stone striving copies.
The existence of imported and pilot stations, indicates that as early as the 3rd millennium b.c.. He had seen the need for a common metric system among the various cities, to facilitate transactions. Or that traders of Poliochne ought to know the metrics of other cities which had trade.
During this period the society of the city seems to have changed the Organization and created economic classes. The Parliament is now in disuse, While the position of almost uniform houses of earlier periods are getting large buildings, mansions, led by the so called "Mansions", which either belong to rulers of the city or have a public character, because xanakataskeyazontai later. Also, There are many weapons, We reveal a political society.
The Red Poliochni was devastated by fire twice. The second fact marks the end of this season and the start of the next, the so-called Yellow.
Poliochni V (Yellow 2400-2100 e.g.) contemporary of Troy II
The Yellow Poliochni is most flourishing period in the history of this city. Corresponds to the also very developed Troy II-III. The two cities have identical alliloepireazomenoys cultures, but the technique of Poliochne is more advanced.
Tranotero example of the relationship between the two cities is the gold treasure of Poliochne, that is proportional to the treasure of Priam, discovered by Schliemann in Troy. The jewels have lots of carvings of fine craftsmanship, evoke the austerity of archaic Greek style but also have local influences. Pins, the earrings, the rings, the bracelets, necklaces and other elaborate jewelry show that has not been detached from Poliochni others aigaiopelagitikoys cultures but a quirky piece of the, a variation.
But there are other common between Poliochne and prwtoelladikwn settlements, They suggest that the accepted poliochni effect of Asia minor populations, Use this knowledge, that coupled with its geographic position gave her wealth and power, But while its inhabitants have maintained traditional Aegean culturally information. This shows omogenon with of the Greek element.
Aside from the simplicity of decoration this is shown by the fact that no temples while little devotional items (around 20 bone figurines). This is not random. The Greeks in the Aegean had other religious ideas. One temple or shrine is not found in Greece in this period. In contrast to Eastern Nations have already appeared the first Holy. Also, Perhaps it is no coincidence, that has never been the necropolis of Poliochne. The "prwtoelladika" cemeteries are also poorly. Only two tefrodoches with ashes fallen found, sample that may burn their dead.
The yellow period new pottery techniques arrived in town from the Greek culture centers. Poliochni is widening and other and occupies an area of almost two hectares. Efforts are being made to social organization. Created public spaces, residency, paved roads, squares, etc.. The wide streets there are large houses with auxiliary spaces, While smaller alleys, sample social inequalities.
Built public wells, pipelines of water supply and drainage system (small sewer).
The city's population is currently estimated at 600-800 residents. Market exists around the main paved road, which apparently come as the Inland Limnioi, and foreign merchants from the sea.
The pottery has been improved. Used a new mixture of clay and blood vessels are better. To build them using the revolutionary technique of wheel. Distinguished two classes of vessels: the daily, that is simpler and more durable and official, that is thinner, more brittle and more elaborately decorated. Feature is the famous amfikypello depas, stating later Homer.
General, the pots are very different from the older. Manufactured colanders, kitchen sinks (boiling pans with hydrant), large jars with a variety of decorative items and with various types of handles. Also, Bronze spearheads, hooks, nails etc. Still used and some bone tools, like needles, knives etc.. which means that, Despite the long-term use of copper for 600 and now years, some objects are still irreplaceable.
The thriving town had a tragic end. Around 2100 was flattened by a massive earthquake. The destruction was so terrible, so the city was abandoned by its inhabitants, who did not come back nor to collect valuable objects, left in ruins, among the gold jewelry. At least two residents have been victims of this earthquake, After kataplakwmenoi found from the ruins of a mansion, near the exit.
After this disaster the Poliochne never again will gain its former glory. Most inhabitants probably moved to Koukonesi, who knows a particular peak during the next period, the so-called Brown.
Poliochni VI (Brown 2100-1700 e.g.) modern Troy V
At the end of the yellow period, in 2100 e.g.. about, poliochni suffered great destruction by earthquake. Then the city began timidly back to grow. Previously it was believed that deserted for long period, but new excavations show that it was inhabited at least on top of the Hill. Not built new buildings, I just repaired the old.
Young(;) residents know the use of the wheel in pottery, proof that no eh-have cultural setback. So the designs and the quality of the vessels were improved. The city has contacts with both Troy IV-V and notio aigaio. But slowly declined and did not know the commercial heyday of older seasons.
This period is the culmination of Koukonesi development and probably has taken the baton from Poliochni as commercial station for those coming to the island.
Poliochni VII (Violet 1700-1400 e.g.) contemporary of Troy VI
The Violet Poliochni didn't show anything new cultural. Is influenced by the Kritomykinaϊko culture, as is evident from the existence of a number of vessels.
Certainly the myths about the Cretan in origin King of Lemnos, the Thoas and Thessalian origin woman of Myrina have some historical background, that corresponds to this season. Some Alliance between the Minoans and Minywn must have been over sovereignty in Lemnos.
However the weight Centre of life on the island has now shifted on Koukonesi, that this time has been a great acne. It is certain that the decline of Poliochne contributed to this development.