The pyramid of Amfionos is probably the most subversive modern archaeological discovery! The finding revealed a world forgotten, a culture that puts in a new theory of the pyramids, leading the Greeks to claim another major trophy. The wondrous world of Greek history confirms again the greatness of!
The literature on the pyramids and the pyramidal buildings in Greece is widening in recent years along with the monuments that disclosed or investigated anew, historical, morphological and functional. In particular the pyramidal monuments of Argolis, for which we'll talk para down, considered beacons (buildings in which they lit fire to impart a message off) or quartering areas and, However, the time the determination was, in’ all, with exogenous historical criteria, i.e. the arbitrary condition (Note that pyramids and pyramidal buildings schon Greece were unthinkable before the expedition of Alexander the great in Egypt, the "cradle" of pyramid construction!
THE DISCOVERY OF TWO IROON TAFOY TIS ELLINIKIS MYTHOLOGIAS
Morphological and chronological aspects of the pyramids of Greece even in tethi new basis in the investigation of the monuments of architectural space of Amfeioy, Thebes in Boeotia. Specific, with the excavations demonstrated that the Hill on which, According to the legend, they had buried the Thebans Dioskouri, the Zithos and Amphion, study on graded by had pyramidal monument!
For the topography and the naming of the hill that there were reasonable and safe recordings of ancient tradition. The tragic poets of Athens of the 5th and 4th century BC., who raised issues of dramaturgy from the so-called Theban Cycle, i.e. from the tragic fate of the House of Labdakidwn, by topografisan’ points of natural necessity and monumental environment of Thebes, in the context of which evolved the action heroes of their tragedies.
First Aeschylus, in his dramatic masterpiece Seven against Thebes, left us a brilliant description and a reference to the natural landmarks of the Acropolis-the Kadmeias thibaϊkis- but at the gates of the wall of the. In front of these walls were lined up the seven lochagoi of Peloponnesian campaign against Thebes, in order to install on the throne of the ekdiwchthenta Labdakidwn Polynices.
THE HUGE IMPORTANCE OF ANAKALYPSIS TIS ELLINIKIS PYRAMIDAS ' GREAT '
Our age is unquestionably the era that the Mesanatolikokentrikes God mesoyranoyn and impose the control effects and their parameters in too many areas of everyday public and silent.
But in today's obscurity Thiva, just at the point where the ancient tradition but also all written testimonies of the place, was about thirty years ago by the archaeologist Theodore Spyropoulos an important discovery kosmoϊstorikis, that however remains unknown and paragkwnismeni, Although you may change all the up to date historical-and not only- data: Found the ancient tomb of Dioskouroi, Zithoy and Amfionos, According to all sources were buried together!
But why this discovery is so important;
Not only because the visitor today can no longer touch the same national Memorandum where were two heroes of Greek mythology! Thing that means that these heroes actually lived and with them played out Ali thina events, some of us have become accustomed to consider as a omichlwdoys time events, in which place persons in situations virtually nonexistent or very much symbolic!
But beyond this shocking confirmation exists and something else, even more unsettling: The Tomb in which found the tomb of heroes, It is the last section-the top i.e.- a huge degree of pyramid midwtis, which is the whole current Hill of Amfeioy! And this Hill is traversed by endless-and unexplored- underground galleries of five metres, sculpted in the rock!
Maybe, However, the syntaraktikotero is that this large Greek Pyramid, can be dated securely around 2700 e.g.! Thing which means it is clearly older than the great pyramid of Khufu, but from the earliest Egyptian pyramid, that of Zozer!
In a nutshell, the pyramidal shape is a Greek invention and from here "exported" in Egypt, but throughout the rest of the world! Of course the topic has even greater ramifications, After this same pyramidal shape presupposes and implies pre-existing religious, policies, social and other similar structures!
We understand well how much stuff spilling the amazing quest of anakaly (I). Spyropoulos… Greek mythology becomes, with exhibits and artifacts, Greek history and even one and a half Millennium earlier than they want to exhibit some agony! One smiling now, When thinking how to officially dating another Greek pyramidi party construct, the famous pyramid of the Greek: Need, says, to build after the era of Alexander the great, Since then only the Greeks came in contact with Egypt to replicate the midiko pyramid shape! And it's called science…
At the same time, We understand and why the kosmoϊstorikis importance of Amfeioy archaeological revelation remains completely aposiwpimeni and let the indifference and ignorance (at the same time that the theories of m. Bernal l. x. yperproballontai…), to the point that today the place that can bring up and down world history is almost a dump…
Here of course it is not n’ develop the thorny problem of monumental topography thibaϊkis regarding the antiquity of the wall of the Kadmeias and the seven gates, to which even the seven igitores antistoichithi of infamous SC Secretariat staff should always ekstra, considered that took place before the Trojan.
Whether Aeschylus refers to the original gates of the Acropolis or kyklwpeioy wall and gates of the city wall of broader historical times, It is an issue that goes beyond the framework of this topic. Moreover, This is an issue exhaustively developed in studies of eminent researchers in the thibaϊkis monumental topography, as Fabricius, the Willamowitz and particularly Keramopoullos, Antony. The latter, in the monumental textbook of Thibaϊka, in Archaeological Bulletin 3 (1917), developed all relevant issues, without-fear- to always results in secure identifications.
In what,but in terms of topographic position of Amfeioy, all the scholars and the Theban line investi can agree that it is a hill that is located to the North of Kadmeias, from which separates a deeper initially-richoteros today due to silting- neck, Once in this position there is no other natural landmark point, that corresponds to the reports of the tragic. Especially Aeschylus writes (Seven against Thebes, 526):"And fifthly n t, I say / prostachthenta borraiais pylais pemptaisi / by tymbon’ This diogenoys Amfionos».
C ' Borraiai Pylai» Aeschylus did not supervise may be placed elsewhere, except at the north end of the oval Kadmeias, which narrows at the end this. However, endless nanti from these gates there is a natural and monumental milestone: The Hill and the tomb of Diogenous Amfionos, who bears the name Amfeion. Everywhere around the milestone that lies the fertile plain of Thebes, the Territory Aonion.
Aeschylus in addition record the Hill and the funerary monument of Thiva Dioscuri, as Meteor-i.e. high milestone- the tragedy and the Suppliants, 662, When he writes: "Tanks (d)’ vehicles (I) / Amfionos enerthe semnwn threads» (see. and: "Besides the Zithoy ' amfimnima / Evripidou The Phoenician Women, 145). This verse indicates the Hill and, on the top of the tomb of Zithoy, which bypassed the Parthenopeus to highlighted at the gates of Kadmeias, the so-called Borraiwn or Wgygiwn Portals, that in the works of all the Tragic are linked to the Hill of Amfeioy.
This well researched natural Hill at the beginning of the 20th century. Antony Keramopoullos,, thereby establishing the testimony of Pausanias 9,17,4: "Zithw and Amfioni in Earth soil is common th mega». In this way, the traveler of the 2nd century. a.d. on the other hand’ a rescued the tradition that they were buried in Dioskouri Thebans common gravesite, on the other hand’ then eyewitnesses described it as the Tumulus of mnimatos as "common Earth soil th mega».
Fri’ but the whole Keramopoullos, EPI assured with the research of the small height of the Mound in the top of the Hill (3 measures approximately over the Hill, It has a height of approximately 35 measures), failed to identify the common grave of the Dioscuri, which we have brought our systematics research during the period 1970-1973!
So, the "mythological" tradition of a Sima ntikoy and venerable monument of the prehistoric culture of Greece, was entirely accurate!
But our research has not stopped here. The Tumulus covered the common grave of the Zithoy and the Amfionos, It was seen that there was dirt simple, but colon shape Romanian construction cone with Adobes, in the northern part of which had become the great-of course common-CIST grave of two heroes. A monumental burial installation with IE kalyptiria huge plate and double door on the north side of close!
The sylimeno grave diataragme to found skeletal remains and three gold Orna Mata krinopapyrwn EUR 0,033 m. (33 mm), with double spiral on the basis of oppositional anthers and strain that resulted in mounting yoke. Of Course, There were a lot more members, one or possibly two necklaces, which anadeiknyan the I WOR and priestly Office of two Princes. (Something similar are the flowers of KRI mind-Papyrus, the bearing and the Prince of the "achaean" Knossos in the famous toicho PHY Prince with the lilies, strating that anadei, in general admission, the priestly office…)
The gold jewelry, the nicest of the Greek area and the findings of the Tomb (It, skyphos) date the pitchers of the tomb and the Mound that covers, in the Prwtoelladikoys II times, i.e. in the period 2700-2400 e.g.!
Despite the objections and the attempt by the scholars to taxes katabibastei hrono λογία and gold jewelry and the Mound to the next Elladiki Period (2000-1700 e.g.), our dating is generally accepted today and is the starting point for the dating and the spatial distribution of the shape of the mound in Greek, but the European space!
Briefly, the princely epitaph Tumulus of Amfeioy is not a known sample and process type Kurgan burial Mound, It is found in Central Europe, the Eurasian zone and South Balkan (Albania). The tumuli are Kurgan burial monuments multiple burials (multiple burials) and their offerings are different from those of the Amfeioy and other tumuli of Greece, in which I encouraged burial jars, bronze objects and pottery typical Greek-Mediterranean and not "European". This undoes the attempt to link the elladikoi tumuli with the bodies of their presumed use mound Kurgan and IndoeyrwpaIoys stakeholders that then, supposedly, for the first time (PEII / IP III period, 2200-2000 e.g.) entering Greek territory… However, Neither the archaeological, Neither the legal sense picture of the Greek area support such theories, as we will see below.
The Tomb is indigenous epitaph shape and signal, evolved from small-slip knots tym of Neolithic times and taking monumental dimensions and monumental form from the Middle Bronze age, proportional to IOS Office of igemonos-deceased. The latter apathanatizetai in memory of the nation and with the epitaph tymboeides bulge, that Homer describes as "Trade Mark" tilay, compatible with the nature of the Mound as commemorative of the glamour of the deceased ruler.
THE TYMBOS THRYLIKOS
But our research has not stopped here. The Tumulus at the top of the Hill stood at the end of a section of the Hill, which had koloyrokwniko shape (cone with two webs, up and down) and a height of approximately 4 m. from one surface to another.
On the basis of this part of the Hill was purely a perimeter zone, a stomach ache, they tried to interpret the Keramopoullos,. Of Course, He is right, of course-!- considered that it was artificial and not natural.
Hypothesized, well, that the stomach ache that was a processional Street ' rituals '. Such rituals suggest the Oracle of Bakidos, a seer from the Arcadia of the archaic times. According to the Oracle it, the Thebans had to guard the tomb of the inhabitants of Tithorea, who, When the Sun was in Taurus Star Agency (May), attempted to steal sub soil from the Amfeion and the post bear home. The soil it carried in tomb of fwkoy, who was the wife of Antiope, mother of Lioskoyrwn of Thebes.
Pausanias used the verb "yfai reisthai" to describe the action of the inhabitants of Tithorea: "YfafeIsthai (d)’ ethe loysin re’ This land in the Fwkidi Tithorean nots ".
The Keramopoullos, contemplates any factual meaning of the term and wondered if this was normal Hill format, ther. Fri’ all these, made the mistake to classify as Byzantine aqueducts some of tunnels in the Hill, which seemed when he visited the tarmac road Athinon-lamias…
” Eventually, our research showed that the "yfaireisthai" of Pausanias was one of the two parameters of the Amfeioy pyramidos, i.e. its internal tunnels!
” The other parameter is the same configuration of dwti Hill bathmi, with such carving, in order to get the tribathmo shape, on top of which built the Tomb and the tomb of Zithoy and Amfionos common, that gave the name of the Hill, «Amfeion» or «Amfion». (see. Xenofontos Greek, 5,48: "and for the Amfeion thesthai agagontes ekeley being weapons», Arrianoy 1,8,6,7 and Plutarch on the sprite Iwkratoy, 4: "The Arch'ias Theokriton and now the kalesas Lysanorida prosagagwn long time ekneysas own speaks of the road under the Micron Amfion»).
The discovery of the pyramid-shaped Hill experiences started from the finding that a few meters below the Peridromo, at the base of the upper cone of the Hill, There was also a second similar km/by stomach ache, who was fthe'i by pachytates katakaly form, trees and bushes, that made it invisible. The APO also revealed that peridromoy cover and even a koloyro Cone, While, as per our skafi, It seemed and still a third principle. The latter though, It is virtually katachwsmenos, In addition to the East side, where there was a bed of Chrysorroa. And even further East, There was the city of the historical Market, but not the Roman Empire railroad, times, the ending of which stipulated the ancient theatre.
The cones of the Hill were measured as follows (imputed value):
* the Tumulus 2,20 m.
* the first cone 4,40 m.
* the second Cone 8,80
* the third Cone 17,60 m.
ROUTE INSTRUMENTS in amazing tunnels of a hill
The Hill of Amfeioy has laxeyetai recommendation psammoli thiki and relatively easily, but the citizenship of epifa undergoes weathering the weather. However, This does not apply to the inside of, where the tunnels perfectly rithikan in-depth maintain your speed over 20 m. The main access to the Interior of the Hill made from vertical shaft, approximately one meter diameter, which was revealed at the perimeter of the plinthinoy mound, his large Tomb borei as the top of the Hill.
A second well on the western slope, slightly oblique, served the ventilation and lighting of the Interior, as is the case in the underground Egyptian monuments memorandum.
The tunnels inside the Amfeioy project is diligent and sophisticated. From the Central shaft leads, East one, in a trifylloschimi notch of the rock, West does not, in an ashlar scale, that puts the Po level of tunnels. These tunnels run throughout the Interior of the Hill in straight segments, right angles which form a maiandroeidi Grill around the Interior of the Hill! The height of tunnels is 5 measures and the creatures description 1,80 m., While the roof is arched!
At irregular intervals, bifacilal, opened in rock alcoves EUR 2,5 m., kamarwtes up, the largest amount of which has been wrapped by pieces of rock.
Our path inside of the Hill was an exciting transfer in the world of legend. The twenty meters depth of kata koryfoy our shaft brought daily with a Clipboard lifting mechanism in the bowels of Amfeioy and in the elaborate tunnels of, which run with individual guard and awe, tethered with cords in order not to perish in the unexplored daida Luce!
The scientific search stirred the human curiosity, the admiration for the amazing structures and our emotion, which was so deep, and the depth of shafts and tunnels that bring us to the mysterious world of the dead, trying to discover the eternal dwellings!
But unfortunately it has left us! Not even had time to run all the underground tunnels, to the design and the photo grafisoyme…
However, our experience, Although short, It is always shocking and magic” the Interior of commercial Amfeioy is the amazing underground monument of Greece that must be investigated and given to the public! And this is very easy from the lateral exits of the tunnel, located next to the existing roads! The legendary and the magic have taken monumental under stop inside the Amfeioy and from coverage of underground tombs is the vindication of our Tradition and our own-atelesforwn, Unfortunately- research efforts and.
THE OTHER GREEK AREA OF GIZA
For the remaining pyramids of capadocia indications are atelestates. In the author's book Word Axios and researcher Chris Lazou, Pyramids in Greece, ekdo tions Aeolus, recorded seven pyramids:
1. The pyramid of Hellinikon
2. The pyramid of Ligoyrioy
3. The pyramid of Dalamanaras Argolida
4. The pinnacle of Caterpillar, New Epidaurus in Argolis
5. The pyramid of Sicyon
6. The pyramid of Neapolis in Laconia (Biglafia)
7. The pyramid of Amfeioy in Thebes
The author briefly describes the dismal condition of most of the monuments are in his article "we pyrami view in Greece!» in Focus magazine, vo 35, January 2003, SLE. 98: "The pyramid of the Greek is the best preserved, with approximately nine masonry structures found style (6-7 measures).
Is she in Ligourio, flattened, of which there are very few saves only its lower stones, especially in the downhill. The pinnacle of Caterpillar survives on little ruins, mainly the front side with the entrance and the pyramidal angle of. The pyramids of Dalamanaras, of Sicyon and she in Biglafia had been destroyed, with the difference that the last saved only the moat that surrounded. End, the tiered pyramid of Amfeioy, Thebes, has undergone so many interventions and disasters, It is difficult to discern the shape of».
In the latter case, the author obviously refers to the installation of a system of Scouts on the pyramid with the permission of the State, Although he had already anakaly application have been referred and the Tomb in Thebes and the Dioscuri gradient formation of Hill.
On the other hand the Hill meanwhile was Grove and was planted with pines, the roots of which cause damage to the surface of monuments th. Among the pines, Digger cleared a narrow area to discover the Hill gradient formation in pyramidal monument. Distinguished, from the bottom up, the rungs 1,2,3 and the two intermediate sections, While at the top of the Hill stands the-invisible in the photo- "tumulus" with the common grave of the Zithoy and the Amfionos.
Gradient shape has until now only the pyramid of Amfeioy, While the rest look Beauti encouraged to belong to the type of normal sided pyramidos, with smooth surfaces and construction of surfaces, epimelesteris or ypotypwdoys sculpt. The pyramid of the Greek has among large surfaces and smaller stones, a technique known in prehistoric buildings in Greece, not only in the cyclopean walls, but in oldest built apartments and construction, as the prwtoelladika ' mounds ' of Kwpaidas.
The u.s. study of the Irich Karstedt (Per Kopaissee im Altertum und die «i minyschen» Kanale, Arch. Anzeiger, 1937, SLE. 1 JV) grammisei that the Sub had walls of prehistoric structures in any way is not a presumption of their exact dating. Other researchers do not, have emphasised that, from the ancient walls, those who stand out for their manufacturing peculiarity are the walls of the buildings (mainly naϊkwn) of geometric times, distinguished with the "mikrolithiki" the structuring (steinekeinigkeit). Therefore, the chronology of the pyramids with only the criterion of their Builder is risky and futile.
Only the excavations and the application of modern methods of dating can determine the chronological horizon construction of these unique monuments, keeping the expectation to grow numerically with the progress of the investigation. However, Despite the possible survival of an original shape, It is obvious that the pyramids of Greece (but also of Egypt) expressions of culture and practical approach of an era, a cultural cycle that the «discovered», the structured and mopoiise used for his own needs and his own philosophy sees or worldview, fact essential for interpretation and their dating. The final use and sending more powered almost undisguised. For Pausanias the Greek Midas pyramid was burial polyandrio.
As written by Xr. Lazos (as above, SLE. 9: "Pausanias called the pyrami view polyandria (the Greek and Dalamanaras), meaning the tombs of many individuals and not a. The small forts were polyandria that hosted a limited number of soldiers. The Arvanitopoulos argues that this was the emblem of the Greek tomb and that beneath the hill there is a probability that is the grave of a prominent person. As a polyandria-forts consider the pyramids of the Lord, Wiegand, Fracchia-he believes that defence towers were some of Andalusian-while Leake, Ross, Vischermi Clark agree with Pausanias, that was a funerary monuments. However, no bones were found in the pyramids… Most likely, or equally likely is the view that considers buildings beacons, broadcasters Pty fwtei messages with the method of pyrseias, which support the Cirtius, Donaldson, Tsountas and Manatt. End, the team of the Academy of Athens supports the very terms that promote thimeni likely to be astronomical observatories).
It is obvious that it is full sygchy point! The Xr. Lazos writes that pyramid in Biglafia of lakonia "had become an obsession for me and I tried to locate ten times. Eventually I found the 1995. All that survives from this is the moat that surrounded ". But nobody has explained to us what serves a moat around one pyrami da, for which the Lazos suggests "different architecture" and notes: «located on a rectangular base, surrounded by a wide moat and saves only its lower stones must be rectangular stones, as we distinguish the various stones that come from’ This and have used the surrounding folds» (as above, SLE. 9.
Pausanias, as we all know, considered this Midas pyramid tomb of Kinadwnos, Master of Menelaos. For the wide moat that surrounds the pyramid of Biglafiwn and memory pitha restore original shape will syggrapsoyme special study. It is obvious of course that each Monument requires its own research and interpretation, and certainly the exact dating.
So will only prove their potential diachronic, the possible survival of shape and any destination or the initial integration of all in a cultural and’ contains chronological horizon, that for us is the most likely version. We believe such a horizon, the early and middle age of hull technical, the period of the minyakoy culture of Greece, the Millennium of burgeoning culture tion of Minywn in Greece and beyond (2700-1700 e.g.). This State, the cultural agency that has, for us, invent and promote the pyramidal shape not only in Greece, but the wider area.
But what is the purpose, What is the starting point and the operation of these buildings; The tomb was clearly Amfeion. On top of the grave of Rulers, the Dioskouroi of Thebes, Zithoy and Amfionos. The Tomb he probably was the center of worship of heroes, institutions of the city of Thebes. In anereynito unfortunately, the Interior of the Hill are presumed to be arguably others tombs. There it refers and the reference of Pausanias for tymbw rychwn attempts inside the Hill («yfaireisthai»), and the grave yard of Hill-Monument, as well as pyres of Niobidwn despite the lofon.
So, the Hill and the pyramid of Office like as not only landfills of rulers the Dioscuri of Thebes, and their families, functioned as "polyandrion" and at the same time as their opsimoys irwolatreias space until times of antiquity! From this point of view, the pyramidal shape was not only utilitarian ierarchoyse the graves in which the Office of the dead, but capturing and sanctity of eternal dwelling of Rulers, of heroes.
The pyramid of Amfeioy, gradient Exo inside and poaching internally, It is the most important, After Lacedaemon, our national Memorandum of minyakoy culture.
Unfortunately, the elaborate this grid has not been investigated, because the signer Digger was transferred from the headquarters of the year 1973…
We underline once again the monumental construction, the complicated route of tunnels, the excellent preservation of laxeysewn… Of Course, the Interior of the miatafiki economy Amfeioy served and practice, which reinforces the similarity with the Egyptian funerary monuments of ancient and Middle Kingdom, in which there are also tunnels, scales and niches, as in Amfeio. The elaborate structure of tunnel route correctly interpreted as a ploy to mislead the tymbwrychwn!
This grid of tunnels in the commercial Amfeioy Interior, which of course was known in antiquity, commented-unbeknownst to IOS, probably- Pausanias, with the ' yfafeisthai d conservation parati’ etheloysi re’ This land in the Fwkidi Tithorean nots ", hinting, apparently, action tymbwry tests inside of the monument.
Fri’ the investigation of Amfeioy stayed imite lis and the shaft was closed with cement after removal of the signer excavator, the findings and survey data have been enough to tekmiriw Soun interpretation as a funerary monument of bathmidw of Early bronze age (2600-2400 e.g.. that is the oldest of the great pyramid!)!
THE THRYLIKOI MINYES AND TECHNOLOGIKA KATORTHWMATA SOOOO TOUS.
The Amfeio well, necessarily put us in an important reflection: There was indeed another important culture in Greece before the Mycenaean Culture and, If Yes, What was the starting point, the duration and characteristics of; The research of Amfeioy led the excavator in the dating of the epanektimi colossal project of Kwpaidos from straggistikoy, that tradition was connected with the Minyans of Orchomenus Boetian. The Orchomenos 77(1) already in Homer referred as Minyeios, While slow cially Pindar reiterated the connection with the Minyans in expression: «Bishops ' Minywn Palaifatwn.
Dienergisa excavations, so in mounds of drainage canals of kwpaϊdikis basin, and in ther parties of "great Ponor»,, that is the main water artery of the diverter kwpaϊdikis Lake to Larymna via an artificial tunnel length 2,5 km, with Professor S. Lauffer, University of Munich, witnessed that the huge drainage work had all paid and work in the Sun of the Millennium b.c..
This was another indication that before the Mycenaean era, Greece became experienced a high technological culture, which in turn presupposed proportional administrative organization. These items, however, were very disturbing to scholars those, He promoted the theory that the mycenaeans founded the oldest culture in Greece and faced with prejudice or even contemptuous indifference, but they can cancel, Since these are based on archaeological data!
Buildings ' palatial ' character of the early Bronze age front, i.e. of the third millennium b.c., revealed in Greece, Thebes (arched building) lerna (State of residence), in Akkobitika of Messinia… Last even, apokaly dismissing Thebes, the "seat" of Amfeioy, palatial building and relic wall of Kadmeias, as well as great "tumulus" from mud bricks-bricks. All the above assessed in prwtoelladikoys times chronolo, so it finds contemporary GE of Amfeioy pyrami. The conclusion is self noito: the Greece enjoyed before the naϊko and one of myki’ just as thriving and, I believe, akmaiotero culture, the duration of which covered the third and the beginning of the second Millennium b.c., virtually an entire MI CADE (2700 until 1700 e.g.)!
The culture he had administrative palatial organization and monumental burial architecture and high technology, hydraulic start and not only! Not particularly brilliant, During this period there was the metallurgical technology, as shown by our own per skafes in the village of Agioritika and the Strait of Tegea, two spaces which currently represent the most important and archaiote RI metallurgy, not only in Greek, but throughout the Mediterranean and the euro ence at national, European space!
We we featured this culture "Minyako» and the period of time of development" ("Minyan") period "of proϊstori technical culture of Greece, covering the Millennium 2700-1700 e.g.. This is included in the Millennium and the so-called early Helladic Era (2700 until 2100 e.g.) and the first two subdivisions of Μεσοελλαδικής era awaren legome (With I and II), After the third tier of, the ME III, There is archaeological and historical "», but lying or rather is the borderline between two cultural circles: Of the minyakoy and of the Mycenaean civilization.
Now it is worth researching and jobs the minyako meleti Millennium culture 2700-1700 e.g., as a substantive high culture istic circle, in all aspects and ekfan tions of.
Follows, will distinguish from both the long neolithic culture of Greece (7000 until 3000 e.g.), and shall the x, the Mycenaean civilization (1700/1600 until 1100 e.g.), by the end of which consistent sympi and end the so-called prehistory of Greece. Why the minyakos account of Greece culture emerges as the standard by which our culture was the Mycenaean, in terms of political organisation, Tomb architecture mnimeiwdoys, technology, worship, but literary oyrgias standar, as we develop our other Mele timata.
THE PROBLEM OF CHRONOLOGISIS
The dating of the pyramid of Amfeioy in the third millennium b.c.. several issues anekinise Mata, Although scholars aren't recorded the starting point of the new da kypse reflection after the announcements and our dimosiey ments… The investigation centered on the reaction of the well-known pyramidos chronolo in Greek of Argolis, which was considered Hellenistic times, According to the dating proposed by the American archaeologist Lord (Hesperia 1938,481-527).
The new date was based on a new excavation investigation of the monument and in application of the method of thermoluminescence. Researchers of the monument, teachers Theoharis and Lyritzis, witnessed that the pyramid of the Greek dating to the early third millennium b.c.. With this survey was the ancient chronological setting of the pyramids of capadocia, as was shown by the excavation and study of the Amfeioy of Thebes stepping pyramidos. So, the pyramids of Greece – at least two of the most important, both the step, and the schema tetrapleyroy- is not of Hellenistic site, but the prwtoelladikwn years! There were works of the third century but of the third millennium b.c.!
The discoveries and these findings defeat all the mainstream of our time, but it was compatible with ancient Tradition, which usually describe as "mythological", aplopoiitika and generalizing. The "mythology" of these two monuments rescued much later touring ' literature ' of Pausanias. The pyramid and the tomb of the Amfeioy tradition of Thebes, He was rescued by Pausanias, the link with the common grave of Thiva Dioscuri, which compound contained in Homer as the first built wall in Kadmeia (Odyssey, (l) 260).
"The first Thibis edos built eptapyloio
pyrgwsan t ', Although th apyrgwton epe'i c’ nanto edy
spacious Thibin naiemen, kraterw CA’ eonte»
Recently discovered relics of promikynaϊkoy (kyklwpeioy) This wall in Kadmeia, near Amfeio, and he has headed the chronolo prwtoelladikoys times, that is the same time as the formation of Amfeioy in gradient pyramid!
And not only found the wall that, that is mentioned in the Odyssey as the eyrima of Kadmeias archai otato, but a specific add-on, palatial, contemporary menu in the adjacent wall and building, a real citadel house, as announced by archaeologists of the Inspectorate of Antiquities Thebes in recent Conference organised by the competent Committee in Thiva!
And the former Pausanias and the Keramopoullos, I noticed the shape of the Hill of Amfeioy in gradient pyramid, but the first two and left a verbal comment and a reference to attempts by observing tymbwrychias, "Shin d'etheloy yfafeisthai re’ This land in the Fwk'idi Tithorean nots ". The Keramopoullos,, with education and acumen of wondered: "That “yfafeisthai” dynomai not to noisw or as otherwise seeking unto the whole principle of the mound, unto him that is the natural lofon… ignoei Pausanias or fine bws says neither Hill nor nature eswterikin the whole thereof pistin» (Arc. Deltion 3,1917, SLE. 387-.
The research of Amfeio opened a new reflection on the use, sending and dating of railroad buildings pyramidi capadocia, but the research of hydraulic works, which we first chronologisame in the third millennium b.c.. and we felt works of minyakoy culture of Greece. It is now certain that the progress of the investigation will be constantly knyei him anadei culture, the Golden Millennium of our prehistoric past and prosgrapsei all of the katakti ments and achievements, which yfirpase the Mycenaean civilization. This well I’ the new component effec brilliant chapter of archaeology and science…
The pyramid of Amfeioy arose as a memorandum he meiwdis construction, which proϋpe thete analogue and modern administrative health Union, an administrative system, which s he oyrgise a monumental architecture before the middle of the 3rd millennium b.c.. This upset the established theory that in Greece there were no monumental burial constructions and monumental administrative-palatial buildings before the Mycenaean Times (1550-1200 E.G.).
The bodies of the Mycenaean Culture were considered-and still considered- the descendants of Indoeyrwpaiwn, who-allegedly-entered in Greece at the end of the 3rd millennium BC., of course, there is no archaeological or linguistic support of relative theory. Besides, nor is the movement of Kurgan tumuli solved the issue, because elladikoi tumuli evolve independently and are not offered as a presumption of tribal movements from the European or Eurasian space in Greece.
THE PYRAMIDWN AND ARCHETYPIKO OF THE FACTORS DETERMINING THE
In what,What concerns the morphogenesis of pyramid structures and spatial that the afe, things are competitive and exciting. Who ' anakaly ' took the shape of pyramidos; The alleged "cradle" of, Egypt, or Greece ("minyan"); The great antiquity of English pyramids would be indefensible as a single phenomenon and product, If you couldn't make with a modern, multi-faceted cultural infrastructure and State Organization, that ekfra he elsewhere and here with high-grade products and technology.
Without the existence of State and minyakoy culture minyakoy, Greek pyramids would stay more curious construction (curiosities) and metakinoyntochronologika from the "prehistoric" until the Greek Natur compliance with its times, sometimes with RIA research tekmi, sometimes in’ Yours sincerely. But despite gwga, works and monuments of a particular culture and a particular time duration and this determines, indirectly but imputed, the dating of Greek pyramids, the Greek creation of architectural culture of minya Golden Millennium (2700-1700 e.g.,)!
The Egyptian pyramids are the true thesteres polypli, but, now, not the oldest! Greek pyramids short numeric residues, but this probably is symptomatic (subject to the "chance of discoveryw/probability of discovery), but already claiming not simply taytochronia, but greater antiquity than the oldest Egyptian, dating on the 2700/2600 e.g..
However, the archetypal of the pyramids is determined not only by the culture that produced, but from the mission and their use. The pyramids are not only burial monuments, which are mainly the Egyptian pyramids. Modern research has yielded another character and using in the great pyramid of Cheopos, which investigates as astronomical station or legal proceedings projects, with convincing arguments! Of returns is not accurate gaiwdesia and "beneficial" effect on the maintenance of organic substances covered by the ' shell ' of!
Instead, the remaining, as far as I know, and the "classic" gradient pyramid of Zozer (2600 e.g.. about) they had burial progress higher, as the ypogei s polydaidales or adjacent burial and their respective facilities devotional. The premises where you were intended to ensure the body-snatchers and parapla serving the multiplicity of ethimotypiwn faith and practices developed in the main trait of Egyptian priestly Hierarchy and every stwtikis.
Burial destination had clearly and the pyramids of Amfeioy and Greek of Argolis, as shown by the findings and the inner tunnels of Amfeioy, but the tradition that he wanted and the one and the other pyramid to have hosted the graves branded heroes of both regions (Zithos and Amphion, Proetus and Acrisius respectively).