On the non-dein daneizesthai Plutarch 1st century a.d .
The daneizesthai of the death afrosynis and estin malakias .
Translation: Lending is an act of sublime afrosynis and malthakotitas! Plutarch said the 1st a.d. century and that the time has come to assess the reasons.. .
"You got; Non-daneizesai because your not missing. Got no; Not daneizesai why can't thaxeplirwseis your debt ", the great writer of antiquity and asbgei someone juxtaposing, that is not right.. .
Nasty topical is his work on non-dein daneizesthai (from the moral), released in new version of the Nephele, in translation and reviews of Zerynthia Papapanoy, with the title The misfortunes of lendingtold me .
Why indeed, sufferings that accumulate in humans, who resort to borrowing lists with how caustic, strict and Plutarch in the small text, I can't read today just "encyclopedic", After the parallels with the contemporary happenings parafyloyn in every verse .
"Borrowers are slaves of all of the lenders. Slaves slaves anaidwn and barbarous and cruel ". And lenders ' Convert the purchase into a hellhole for the dysmoiroys debtors, like vultures will destroy them and devouring them dipping its beak into their guts "… says categorically the orator Chairwnitis .
And arguing. And brings examples from the history of his time, from the myths, but also from the sufferings of ordinary people. And humor sometimes enlists black!.
Text-a speech in fact- not written by chance. Athens and other Greek cities were tormented by the effects of over-indebtedness, When Plutarch on the 92 a.d. decided to speak in front of an audience for the serious consequences of borrowing .
1 / 9 To whom was charged then people; In their own, but mainly to foreign creditors, mostly Romans. "Koybalwntas with them bags and contracts and contracts like shackles against Greece, the plow from city to City and wreak debts, many sufferings and bring a lot of interest, and that difficult xerrizwnontai and shoots them encircle the cities, debilitating and eventually the choke ", says Plutarch documents .
And what suggests; «Go to glytwseis from the enemy and your tyranno, the lender raised freedom Sou, shop puts dignity Suu Kyi unless they give, to bother· If sell, cast the value· If it doesn't sell in forcing· If you go to court trying to influence the outcome of the trial· If the commands in orkizesai· If you hold the door closed is in your backyard and thunders relentlessly» .
But not only the Plutarch katakeraynwnei creditors. And let us not hurry his readers to draw easy conclusions making convenient correlations .
Don't blame only the lender. Responsible primarily by the borrower with the unwise behavior and his desire for luxury and trifyli life (reminds us of something that;), shouts the author… "Because chrewnomaste to pay rather than the bread and our wine, but cottages, slaves, mules, canapes and trapezwmata» .
Though Plutarch katakeraynwnei so their contemporaries, What would he say about. the eortodaneia and loans for summer vacation, they were marketed by banks until recently finding course, many "buyers" .
And the result which is; "To preserve our freedom and we have taken out loans kolakeyoyme people who are destroying homemade, We become their bodyguards, We call on them to meals, give them gifts and paying taxes» .
The fact that a man very low-key, as Plutarch considered by scholars of being so strict on this project and shows so much passion in condemning the phenomenon of an ill-considered lending on the greed and cruelty of the lenders on the other, He had led in the past in case that wrote it at a young age. Thing wrong, as modern research .
The inability of people to escape from the evils of borrowing seems that employed much the great biographer of antiquity. "Man who gets a modified, debtor stays forever and as the horse who have worn bridle, accepts on its back one rider after another», writes .
Cited in later ancient polytonic text writing .
ON THE NON-DEIN DANEIZESTHAI
• Plato ἐν metalambanein tois ydatos Nomois oyk ea ἀllotrioy toys neighbour, If I oryxantes mi aytois ἄchri in spite of keramitidos kaloymenis ἄgonon eyrwsi namatos gis in village; the gar keramitis echoysa liparan nature and pyknin stegei paralabousa and ygron diiisi in the worst; he dein metalambanein tἀllotrioy toys ktisasthai dynamenoys mi Idion; ἀporia gar boithein the law. Ἆr II di and worst edei on money is law, as mi daneizwntai Fri eterwn II mid I become I ἀllotrias pigas badizwsi, erstwhile mi aytwn ἀformas exelegxantes tas oIkoi and synagagontes wsper by chrisimon ἀnagkaion libadwn and aytois in? nyni d II and its tryfis or chrwntai worst malakias luxury tois eaytwn, echontes, but lambanoysin pollw I eterwn of para, mi interconnectors; he tekmirion tois ἀporois mega; gar worst daneizoysin, but boylomenois Tin eaytois ktasthai eyporian II; and witness didwsi and bebaiwtin ἄxion, that has, pisteyesthai, appropriate echonta mi daneizesthai .
Plato in the laws forbid to get water from the Earth of its neighbours unless it has first failed to find water in its own place, having dug until it meets the so-called keramitida, i.e. clay layer (the clay is greasy and compact, retain liquid and leaves to penetrate) .
Imposes however to share the water of their neighbors, those who cannot have their own, as the law shall, in distress, to provide assistance .
It would therefore not be available for money law, prohibiting people to borrow from others and resort to foreign sources, If not first consider their own fortune and theirs options, and does not stand out and assemble, drop drop, What,What is useful and necessary; Nowadays, the tryfi, the self-indulgence and luxury have made people to not use what they have, Although they have quite. Borrow well, against high interest, While nothing causes them. A testament for this is that, Nobody lends to man who does not have financial resources. Lend to those who wish to gain even greater comfort. and bring witnesses and provide guarantees that it is deserving because lending have property, While precisely why we should not borrow at all .
What the trapezitin and pragmateytin healing? from the daneisai Bank ekpwmat Idias; I echeis, paropsidas ἀrgyras, lekanidas; ypothoy on these chreia; the he trapezan the kali or Aylis Tenedos ἀntikosmisei tois kerameois, katharwterois oysi τῶν ἀrgyrwn; ozei bary oyk interest and dyscheres wsper imeran epirrypainontos Iou I round the polyteleian, oyd ἀnamnisei τῶν kalandwn II and of noyminias, in Ierwtatin imerwn ἀpofrada poiousin daneistai Oi oysan and stygion. Men gar ἀnti Toys of pwlein tithentas enechyra home aytwn oyd II if • swseien • Ktisios theos; aIschynontai timin who, oyk aIschynontai 3 / 9 tokon τῶν Idiwn didontes. Although GI o Periklis but the of theas world, ἄgonta talanta chrysioy 41 ἀpefthoy, periaireton epoiisen, as, efi, respect the war chrisamenoi ἀpodwmen elatton mi aythis; oykoun and wsper imeis ἐν chreiais paradechwmetha tais poliorkia mi froyran daneistou polemi, mid I aytwn oran doyleia's of didomena; but of perielontes Bank Home mi useful, of the watercourse, of ochimatwn, of diet, eleytheroys diafylattwmen eaytoys, as ἀpodwsontes aythis, ean eytychiswmen .
AI Rwmaiwn gynaikes oyn men εἰς ἀparchin in Pythiw Ἀpollwni the world epedwkan, othen ὁ kratir Delfoys εἰς epemfthi chrysous; aI he Carthaginians gynaikes ekeiranto tas thrixin enteinai tais and kefalas tas michanas and home provided in favour of fatherland organa; he aytarkeian the imeis aIschynomenoi katadoyloumen eaytoys ypothikais and symbolaiois, appropriate εἰς ayta home useful systalentas ἐκ τῶν syspeirathentas and ἀchristwn and perittwn katakopentwn and prathentwn eleytherias aytois and Idrysasthai and teknois Ieron gynaixin .
Ἡ ἐν Ἄrtemis gar men the Efesw tois chrewstais, When katafygwsin εἰς τὸ Ieron a, ἀsylian provides and ἄdeian from of loans; the he of eyteleias and ἄsylon and ἄbaton pantachou swfrosin ἀnapeptatai tois, pollis eyrychwrian Ilaran of supply and epitimon. As gar the Pythia tois Ἀthinaiois on home xylinon didonai teichos Midika the theon efi, kἀkeinoi the place and the city and home of estates and tas ἀfentes tas oIkias εἰς katefygon naus in favour of eleytherias, oytws imin didwsi trapezan of theos xylinin and keramean lekanin and trachy Imation, eleytheroi ean ethelwmen zin .
Mide in c I Ipposynas Te menein, mid ochimata zeykta kerasfora II and katargyra, first interest tacheis katalambanoysi and paratrechoysin; ἀll I onw tini in tychonti and chrwmenos and polemion kaballi feuge tyrannon daneistin, worst gin and aItounta ydwr as • Midos, but the eleytherias ἁptomenon and prografonta the kἂn didws mi epitimian;, echis kἂn enochlounta;, mi kἂn pwlis-driven;, epeywnizonta; kἂn mi pwlis, ἀnagkazonta; kἂn dikazis, entygchanonta; kἂn omosis, epitattonta; kἂn of port badizis, ἀpokleionta; kἂn oIkoi menis, epistathmeyonta and thyrokopounta .
What gar wnise Ἀthinaioys ἀpallaxas of the Solon tois swmasin ofeilein? doyleyoysi gar ἅpasi tois ἀfanistais, rather d I I aytois; oyd what gar in the deinon? but doylois and ybristais and ἀgriois barbarois, oys wsper ὁ Platon II Ἅidoy diapyroys fisi during kolastas and dimokoinoys tois efestanai isebikosi. And the ἀgoran oytoi gar ἀsebwn ἀpodeixantes tois ἀthliois place chrewstais gypwn as esthoysi and ypokeiroysin aytoys ' Dertron dynontes esw,» 4 / 9 toys d I wsper Tantaloys efestwtes eIrgoysi geysasthai Idiwn trygwntas τῶν and harvesting .
As he of Ἀthinas tas epempse Dareios Datin and Ἀrtafernin ἐν ἁlyseis echontas tais chersin and desma against of aIchmalwtwn, paraplisiws oytoi of manuscripts and wsper contracts pedwn the komizontes of Greece ἀggeia mesta epiporeyontai tas cities and dielaynoysi, speirontes oych karpon imeron as • Triptolemus, ἀll I oflimatwn polyponoys polytokoys and rizas and prepared dysekleiptoys, aI kyklw nemomenai and kamptoysi ἄgchoysi periblastanoysai and tas cities. Men gar lagws legoysi Toys tiktein ἅμα and etera trefein and epikyiskesthai again, Home of mastigiwn said that he and barbarians before and syllabein tiktei chrea; gar eythys ἀpaitousi didontes and aIroysi daneizoysin prepared and lambanoysin in favour of ḟ daneisai .
It's called "Esti Messiniois men founded Pylos pro Pyloio, Pylos CE esti men and ἄllos; ' lechthisetai respect daneistas he toys "Esti interest pro tokoio, interest GI men and ἄllos esti. "fysikwn dipoy τῶν katagelwsi EIta, miden legontwn ἐκ of mi ontos ahead; founded by miket however gar of II yfestwtos II mid ontos gennatai interest; and τὸ telwnein oneidos igountai, of law didontos; daneizoysi telwnountes gar aytoi illegally, rather d II, eI tἀlithes dei eIpein, ἐν daneizein in chrewkopountes; gar writes of Egypt receiving elatton chrewkopeitai. Although the second Persai GIS pseydesthai τῶν igountai ἁmartimatwn, He prwton τὸ ofeilein; that and the pseydesthai tois ofeiloysi happens oftentimes; rather he lie the daneizontes and radioyrgousin in eaytwn efimerisi tais, writing that priest in tosouton didoasin deini, elatton didontes; and the aItian has pleonexian pseudos, oyk oyd ἀnagkin I ἀporian, ἀll I ἀplistian, ἀnapolayston τὸ aytois estin is finally and ἀnwfeles olethrion he ἀdikoymenois tois. Oyte gar ἀgroys ἀfairountai chrewstwn τῶν gewrgousin oys, oyt I oIkias aytwn, ekbalontes ekeinoys, oIkousin, oyte trapezas II esthitas ekeinwn oyt listed; but prwtos the ἀpolwle, and second I deleazomenos kynigeteitai yp ekeinoy. Gar holds as in ayxomenon olethrw ἄgrion pur and fthora of empesontwn, ἄllon ἐξ ἄlloy katanaliskon; he and Helene of ripizwn trefwn of polloys daneistis and has longer oyden dia labwn time ἀnagnwnai how many peprake and how many ekbeblike and means that kylindomenon and swreyomenon diabebike the ἀrgyrion .
And these non-m I oIesthe speak exeninochota respect daneistas war toys; "the worst gar pwpot II men oyde emas ilasan bous Ippoys;" ἀll tois procheirws endeiknymenon II daneizomenois, osin has the pragma aIschynin and ἀneleytherian and that the daneizesthai of eschatis ἀfrosynis and estin malakias. Echeis? Mi daneisi, worst ἀporeis gar. Oyk echeis? mi daneisi, worst ektiseis gar. First I d oytws ekatera Idian II skopwmen. • Cato to Tina presbytin ponireyomenon «W ἄnthrwpe, What in gira,» efi, "polla echonti ἐκ kaka the of ponirias aIschynin prostithis?» oykoun and sy on penia, pollwn kakwn qualifications, mi episwreye tas daneizesthaikai ofeilein ἀmichanias ἐκ of mid I ἀfairou of aid, ż ··· monw of wealth differs, tinἀmerimnian. Epei τὸ of proverb ' I geloion Worst estai the aIga ferein, ἐπί Moi thete the boun.» Penian ferein mi daneistin epitithis seaytw capable, fortion and ploytountidysoiston. How oyn diatrafw? tout I erwtas, echwn cheiras, echwn feet, voice echwn,wn man, ż ··· τὸ filein esti and fileisthai and the charizesthai and the eycharistein? letters instructor, and paidagwgwn, and thyrwrwn, sailing, paraplewn; estitoytwn aIschion oyde oyden dyscheresteron of ἀkousai «ἀpodos.» • Roytilios in Rwmi in Moyswniw but proselthwn ' Moyswnie,» eIpen, «• Zeys • SOTER, sy on mimi and zilois, the worst borrowing. " And • meidiasas ' Oyde Moyswnios eIpen lend. " • Gar Roytilios, wneidizen ekeinw daneizomenw lender aytos. The Stoic aytityfomania; what Jupiter already in the the swtira dei kinein, aytothen tois ypomnisai fainomenoisenon? the worst borrowing chelidones, the worst borrowing myrmikes, the oIs φύσις worst cheiras, worst word,worst technin dedwken; ἄnthrwpoi perioysia dia he required in eymichanon Ippoysparatrefoysi, kynas, Partridge, lagwoys, koloioys; seaytou kategnwkas what oyn GIS,ἀpithanwteros and ἀfwnoteros perdikos koloiou wn and kynos ἀgennesteros, wst ἀp ἀnthrwpoy II midenos II wfeleisthai periepwn, psychagwgwn, fylattwn, promachomenos? oychoras, as men polla γῆ provides polla he Thalassa? 6 / 9"Min eIseidon" Mikkylon And fisin • Crates "of eriwn xainonta, gynaika Te sygxainoysan, the limon leaving in aIni diiotiti.» Cleanthis d I Ἀntigonos of basileys irwta dia theasamenos time in Athens tais "eti Ἀeis, Kleanthes? ' " Ἀlw,» fisin, "basileu w; poiw eneka ḟ of Zenon mi ἀpostinai mide philosophy." Oson τὸ morale of ἀndros, from the mill and of maktras pettoysi and ἀloysigrafein of thewn cheiri and Moon and ἄstrwn and ilioy. He doylika Imin dokei taut I projects. Toigaroun I daneisamenoi In eleytheroi wmen, kolakeyomen oIkotribeas ἀnthrwpoys kaidoryforoumen and deipnizomen and ypoteloumen dwra and taxes, the worst the penian dia(oydeis gar lends peniti), but the dia polyteleian. EI irkoymetha ἀnagkaioispros gar tois the bion, oyk if in genus daneistwn, wsper oyde oyde Gorgonwn estin Centaurs; ἀll I tryfi daneistas epoiisen the oych chrysochooys ἀrgyrokopoys and itton and kaimyrepsoys and ἀnthobafoys. Worst gar ἄrtwn II oInoy ofeilomen timin oyd, but passages in kaiἀndrapodwn and imionwn and 3 beds and trapezwn, chorigountes and eklelymenws.