The term country pangeo, with the vast plains of Serres and Philippi, irrigated by the rivers Strymon and Aggitis, It was in antiquity much fertile, While at the substratum of hiding plenty of precious metals. It was so natural, throughout the course of this region into history, already by the early historic times, anyway and are closely tied to the stock of wealth, I pulled like a magnet cities, peoples and conquerors.


Starting from the flora of that country and from t "agricultural products produced in the land of, We are obliged to stand first and "devote a separate chapter of this in our article" a product that until now gives the area the most distinctive identity. This is t "vineyards and wine of Paggaio and especially the current Symbol conditions, (which the ancient Greeks didn't commonly resolved by Pangeo), that the abundant and long-lasting presence testify, Apart from historical sources, numerous shells craters and oinochown located in the ruins of ancient settlements of the region.

Already Homer area Paggeo and especially the current conditions Symbol, which lies to the south of the latter and the Struma until today Kavala was famous for t "vineyards, hitherto grown ceaselessly for centuries. He was also famous for the part of "those vines produced wine, the famous "vyvlino wine" of the ancient Greeks.

the Phoenicians, ago in our region appear Greeks of southern Greece had colonized Thasos, They brought to the opposite coast of Thassos which today passes New beachfront Kavala national road - Thessaloniki, a sort of vine from the city of Byblos Phenicia.

For the origin of this wine from Phenicia Athenaeus, (Greek who lived during the reign of Marcus Aurelius or successors thereof, Septimius Severus and Alexander), in the "Deipnosophistai" project ((b) 29) he says about:

"And the wine Vyvlino commend the sacred Phenicia,
but to put I in Lesvos wine.
For your first time if the drink, before you get used to it,
It will look more fragrant than "the wine of Lesbos,
because its flavor over time, as too old, He got it
but as often drunk, You will look your worst.
But from Lesvos wine is not another more expensive,
single ragweed. Though with some corny laugh
and they say that the best wine "yes Phenicia,
for "those not paying Duplex.

From then Phoenician vine that took part "name and Vyvlina (or Vivlina) mountains, ie the current Symbol Term and wine region, which was first mentioned in Hesiod's didactic epic "Works and Days" as follows:

ah! and could Nama
a rock in thick shade and nacho and ¬vivlino krasi¬
and pie made from goat milk pochoun quit suck
and damalitsas meat which has not yet calved
and has just had enough eating in meadow
and newborn kid.
R therebelow seated in the shade,
I could drink wine with the color of fire
and delights my heart from the carousal,
with my face turned towards the lively murmur of
R drawing running water from an inexhaustible fountain nothing
not blur,
n "agitate three parts water and one part wine.

For this very famous wine of our region moreover, the Epicharmus of Kos, poet comedies E "BC. Century says that Vivlina produced in the mountains of Thrace, which in turn the Armenidas places in the region of Antisaris and Oisymis, (first the ruins found near the current Kalamitsa Kavala and the second on the hill and the coast of the dune of today Nea Peramos): Armenidas not of fisin Thrace is place the book, amen afthis Tisarin and Oisymin prosagorefthinai).

Euripides in 'ION' tragedy, (lyrics 1194-1995) It says that in "a symposium took place in Delphi, vivlino wine being mixed with water in a golden craters: ("And they spread silence. And then again we filled the sacred craters, with water and with Vyvlino booze ")

That "this same wine talking and Fillylios, comic poet of ancient Attic comedy, just like the Roman Achilles Tati, and Theocritus the "romance" of (ΧIV,4) says that the hero Aeschines, in a celebration in the countryside, said: "I opened for my friends Vivlino wine, fragrant, four years, which was like naache just come out of the winepress ")

Hesychius also says that vivlinos is sort of wine and the vine variety in Thrace, the not Stephanus of Byzantium: "Vivlini. Country Thrace. from the unto this vivlinos wine '.

Finally I must mention and what he says above Athenaeus, in the "Deipnosophistai" project, that "The Ippys the Reginos (historian of the Persian Wars era) said the vine so-called "ileus", and yet they called "books".

Currently the Pollis from Argos, who reigned at Syracuse, first brought to Syracuse from Italy. So death vivlinos wine, sweet wine from Sicily called "Pollios".

But not only vines cultivated in the south of the Symbol conditions extending land. And the rich plain of the lower reaches of the Strymon, the extending north and west of Amphipolis was famous for its fertility in ancient times. However, it is unlikely that cultivated in "this area, at least before the 4th BC. century, some named grape variety, as she which produced the vivlino wine or wine of Mende (ancient city of Halkidiki) etc.. And the scarcity of evidence on the vine growing in the region support the view that.

For vine cultivation in the area of ​​lower course Strymonas particularly in Visaltia and Amfipolis spoke under "first Theopompus, the 54th book of his Histories, as the relevant passage rescued precious Athenaeus, in the aforementioned project "Deipnosophistai", (Theopompus the text we will see later in this article).

The Rep. Lazaridis, former Registrar of Antiquities of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, published when he lived some contracts of sale that originated from the area of ​​Amphipolis. Two of "to the sale vines:

(a)) One contract, (inscription of the 3rd century BC. found in Mesolakkia Serres, (BITCH 85 (1961), SLE. 431), He had the following content: "For the sake of good luck. Nikolaos, his son Melantadi, bought from a vine Asandro (extent) six Plethron (about 5.200 current square. measures), instead (consideration) hundred twenty drachmas ".

(b)) The second contract, (inscription of the 4th BC. century found in New Kerdyllia, (BITCH 85 (1961) It was essentially a "pact of repurchase" and had the following content: "When Kalippos was superintendent, Timon acquired (bought) by Exikesto the field of Apollonius and store the jars, (a price) five thousand drachmas (the large amount of repurchase price shows that the sale involved a very large area, and the existence of the store with the jars indicates that at least part of the area was vine).

At this point, we should also mention the resolution of Gazoros (April of 167 e.g.), town of the valley of Struma, north Amfipoleos, the text of which refers to the planting of vines and trees on public land, private volunteers, where benefits are provided for by the exploitation of the fields.

Pangeo, Philip and Alexander the Great


The area Paggeo but not distinguished in antiquity only t "vineyards. It was generally and in every respect very fertile. The Pangeo itself was famous for its large forests, which provided the famous shipbuilding timber that the value of the first finds the Persian general Megabazus, whose words to the Persian King rescued by Herodotus ((E), 23): Oh king, what did you do, which gave the right to "a capable and wise Greek, (means the tyrant of Miletus Istiaio), to build the Myrcinus, where there is plentiful shipbuilding timber, wood for oars and silver!.."At the same shipbuilding timber and praises Thucydides in his History, considering it ideal for the construction of wooden ships of that era, thanks to which o Spartan general Vrasidas, the 424 e.g., after the capture of Amphipolis, installed in Struma, in the region yard Amfipoleos, for the construction of triremes, (Thucydides History Pelopos. war 4.108). But though Philip and Alexander the Great, the timber is Paggeo built their fleet. Indeed our Arrian says that the fleet of Alexander was in Cercinitis lake, whereby the floating and then Struma river that flowed in "this and continue by" this course of, reach the sea. Finally Strabo (Geography, 7th book, 331) refers to the shipyards of Dato, for which the French archaeologist P. Collart, in his art: «Philippes, City of Macedonia, from its origins until "the end of the" Roman times, Paris 1935″ (chapter first, SLE. 47, footnote 3) He says he was undoubtedly the two commercial ports of Naples and Antisaras, (today Kalamitsa), wherein the timber was transported by "straight from Paggaio through the neck of the Symbol conditions (the author obviously means today crossing St. Sulla).

The ekatofylla roses and other products

Pangeo famous moreover from ancient times to the famous ekatofylla roses, which refer Theophrastus, Athenaeus and Pliny, whose idea give us a small wild roses hitherto scatter their fragrance on low slopes. As a distant memory of roses Paggeo considers the great French archaeologist and traveler L. Heuzey who passed through our area before a century the same name and the famous city with a long history Paggeo, the Rodoleivous, containing the radical "rose = rose". These roses Paggeo in Roman times used particularly in ritual worship of the dead (rosalia), which consisted precisely in their burning over the graves of the dead, while there are few writers who consider that in former times played an important role in "this very cult of Dionysus, that the oracle was in Paggaio.

And the plant "Flax" (Flax) but they are grown on the banks of the river Struma, that women wove, making linen for the needs of the domestic economy, (Herodotus Histories, II, 105).

the Theopompos, Livy, Strabo and other ancient writers also speak highly, as already on the occasion of t "vineyards of the area mentioned, the euphoria of the land of Visaltia and Amfipoleos, which extended west and north of the latter, especially in vineyards, cereals, figs and olives. Resolutions of Gazoros city, as also seen, They refer to wheat and barley crop, fruit trees, Sykeona, olive groves and vineyards, while the Ear adorning the currencies of Visaltia cities and numerous millstones found in the ruins of the cities are further eloquent testimony to the abundance of grain.

Strabo in turn, speaking of the land of the ancient Dato region, ie subsequent Philippi, He speaks of "excellent and fruitfulness country", while our known Athenaeus, in the "Deipnosophistai work" says Theopompus, the 54th book of Histories of said characteristics that "in the fortunate Philip season, King of Macedonia, in the region of Visaltia, of Amphipolis and Grastonias of Macedonia, in the heart of spring did the fig figs and t "vines made of grapes, while olive trees gave, at a time when elsewhere even then gouged shoots "!

For since ancient times already great crop of cereal important element end should be considered and the myth of the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, the god of the Underworld, a charming adventure that the ancients believed that occurred in Nysa, "Flat" igatheon Nysiion ", a holy place, which according to several ancient and modern historians (like the Roman Appian and the wise French archaeologist and professor of the principles of our P century. Perdrizet) It must be located in the area where reigned Lycurgus, if he was the last king of the Thracians Hedoni, who lived in northern and western Paggaio, Nisa could not but be the ancient mystical name of this mountain itself, in whose, as saith the Homeric hymn to Dionysus, the child - god grew up in valleys and caves ("Nysis in gyalois") and in whose name can be seen as the first true synthetic word "Zeus", (which is the first component and many Thracian tribes, such as admin, the Diovissoi etc.. and of course they have a common root with that of Zeus, the great God of the Greeks), as a second component is not the name of the mountain "Nisa". Dionysus was therefore for the Thracian god of Nysa, ie the god of the sacred mountain, Paggeo.

The fauna of the ancient Pangaiou

Paggaio but was famous for its rich fauna, except that of the known rock paintings of the animals, (Deer, deer, wild boar etc.) had, both the term itself and the surrounding area, according to what tells us the great historian of the 4th BC. century Xenophon, "Lions and leopard, lynx, panthers, Dipper ". Especially when Xerxes crossed with his army to conquer Greece, lions in the area of ​​Visaltians, (current N. Serron) It stated that especially devouring the camels of his troops, while Herodotus lions and wild bulls with large horns were in the area of ​​the estuary of the River Nestos, where, near a town called site of Pistiros, (where current Pontoleivado), there was a pond with salty water was indeed full of fish and which, as always says Herodotus, Dry pack animals that Xerxes brought with him in his campaign against Greece. If p "we add and animals that represent the tribes of the region in their currencies, (bulls, feral, eagles, chamois, hares, horses, goats, Wild ducks, geese, snakes, lizards, various birds etc.), which, accordance with the opinion of the English archaeologist ST. CASSON are not just symbols but "depict local products, then we have a complete picture of the fauna. Especially even for t 'refer horses again in the history of Thucydides and indeed the report (5.6 and 10) relative to the concentration of many horses within the walls of Amphipolis, while for large livestock sure the area have survived from antiquity news.

The fish also eels in rivers Paggeo region and mainly Lake Cercinitis and Struma, (even the eels fished blurring the waters), we are known by Aristotle (History of animals, IX,45) and Athenaeus (Deipnosophistai 1.76.13), while another idea about "what gives us an inscription found in Philippi area, from which it follows that a Roman resident of Philippi, Griffin believes the, founded in Philippi farm area (cell pool)! But we do not have ancient sources speak of the marine wealth of the region, except maybe the coins of Thasos brought up very often dolphins, as well as from various shells in large number are the remains of prehistoric coastal villages and beaches of Thassos and Greek women trades cities spanning between the Struma and Nestos.

Finally we note here that Philip, glimpse outset great importance of today's plain (of bog) Philippi, dries and surrenders in growing large parts of the immense time member of Philippi. For this important project Theophrastus, in "On Plant consideration 'work, speaking region (which is very likely that the knew very well), says about "this drying, that they took other 2.300 years to complete in late 1930 the Greek State: "In Philippi previously had more frosts, now not, because the waters were drained and cultivated soil, It is much less. And the air is thinner (dry) and they drained the water and because the soil is treated. Because that region which remains uncultivated, and cooler is denser (liquid) air is because it is wooded, nor the sun's rays reach easily to it, nor the winds blow, while at the same time that (the area) It has many waters, running or standing. This happened around Krinides when the Thracians inhabited, because the whole valley was filled with trees and water .. "

For the same drying talking and the Roman historian Pliny (Natural History, 17,30) as follows: Philips culture dried in the air district have changed », and finally a sign of the times M. Alexandrou, found in Philippi and mentions D.. Lazaridis at the "Philippos" work refers to work that same.


Silver and gold


But products produced fertile land around Pangeo area and t "vast forests, for which reason we already, it was nothing compared to the treasures of the mines. For centuries the rich mines Paggeo provided in great abundance of gold and silver, to make while Herodotus says (VII, 112), "Pangeo Uros, EON mega TE and high, Meanwhile HRIS te and silver neither metals, THE nemontai, Piero and either Odomantes indeed Satrai ", Strabo 'that most metals gold ba And it shall Krinisin, wherein now Filippi city idrytai, near Mt. Paggeo. And this is not the Pangaion chryseia and has Argyreika metals, and beyond and into the river Struma until Paionia. Fassi and not the earth Paionian arountas evriskein gold TINA molecules ", the not Euripides, in the "Rhesus" tragedy to name Pangeo 'term with the gold tumors, whose land hides silver '. The search of gold then was the most important issue for the region over the centuries and is the secret of the whole history. The lure of quick profits, keeping the locals a feverish energy, He never ceased to irritate the surrounding peoples lust and greed, yet causing entrepreneurship all Greeks. (At this point I refer to the great sympathy acquired between the Athenian people Kimon, the son of the winner of the Persians at Marathon, Miltiades, when he first captured the port of Nine Streets, (of the later Amphipolis), the Iiona, the 475 e.g.. He says Plutarch (Kim., 7): "So why (the Athenians) highly appreciated the work of Cimon; Why handed over to "them a country very fertile and beautiful". The Athenians with "other words, behind the walls of conquered Iionas saw already offered them the riches of a mythical country, are not their poets began to get longer matters myths Hedoni and describe the areas irrigated god Strymon.

The wealth of natural assets of the area, already from the Homeric years caught the attention of the Phoenicians, that their colony Thassos is certainly extended to the opposite coast, (which also confirms the myth of the Phoenician Cadmus, that mythology that first discovered the precious metals Paggeo and he, from the Phoenician word paga, which meant meeting gave you "named in Paggaio), pulled in the 7th century BC, during the big Greek colonization attention Parian, island residents Paros Aegean, Settlers from which, m "led by Telesikli, father of the first European lyric poet Archilochus first settled in Thassos where they founded a colony and began to exploit the richness of the island of ores, marbles and shipbuilding timber, They come and colonize and settle in "this.

the Daton, which is the most ancient name of Krinides, subsequent Philippi, He became famous in "throughout antiquity for the wealth of gold mining. Thus the expression "Daton goods" was a proverbial expression very dear to the ancient Greeks and meant the greatest abundance and the biggest wealth that one could imagine. A single mine this rich country, Tillers of this Matter, where tradition and most scientists (as P. Perdrizet) place it in Paggaio, although already some younger researchers, (as the Registrar General of Antiquities IR "Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities. Chaido Koukouli - Chrysanthaki) with convincing arguments tend n "prove that this, (η οποία, incidentally it was celebrated by Thucydides, who had estates in "this and there wrote the Peloponnesian War), located in the mountains of the basin rather than in Paggaio, attributed to Thasos, who already in the first years of the 5th century BC. exploiting all the coast between the Struma and Nestos, the so-called Thasos continent Perea, 80 talanta, ie much more than all along their natural resources the island. End, when Philip II "later captured the mines in the region of Philippi and Paggeo and better organized operations and mining methods, It was produced in the new deposits of more than 1.000 talanta time, (a mythical amount, considering that with a talent that nobody bought bought with six million drachmas in the year 1915!). From "So these mines generated the gold coins of Amphipolis, around 400 e.g., the Confederation of Halkidiki Chalkidean around 392 – 358 e.g., of inland Thasos (Thassians CONTINENT) around 361 e.g.. and especially the large number of gold staters of Philip and his son, Alexander the Great, in which all conquered the then known world and became a single development space and dissemination of Greek culture.

And I close this short article devoted to the Economic Geography of Paggeo region in antiquity, with my report and some other minerals, that their existence and their extraction in the region reveal traces of ancient mining works until today one finds. These were copper (Pangeo, Dysoro, Symbol), iron (Symbol), lead etc., marble of Thassos and perhaps Paggeo, while end t "name of Clay Tour, colony inhabitants of the Cycladic island Andros, whose excavation is already visible on the National road of Kavala - Thessaloniki, after Kerdyllia, testifies to the existence and operation of the eponymous mineral, useful for the construction of any kind of pottery everyday and ritual use.


  1. CASSON Stanley, M.A: «Macedonia, Thrace and Illyria, their relations to Greece from the earliest times down to the time of Philip son of Amyntas, Oxford University press, 1926″.
  1. COLLART P.: Philippes, City of Macedonia from its origins until "the end of the" Roman times, version 1935.
  1. Dimitsas Margaritis: Ancient Geography of Macedonia, photocopying reissue of the year 1988, the original issue.
  1. The HEUZEY. – DAUMET H: Archaeological Mission of Macedonia, version 1876.
  1. LAZARIDIS Demetriou: Philippi, version 1956.
  1. LAZARIDIS Demetriou: AMFIPOLIS AND CLAY, version
  1. Paul PERDRIZET: WORSHIP AND MYTHS OF Pangea, version 1910.
  1. SALVIAT F. Vines and old wines Maronea has Mendee: Arthroapotoergo: MNIMID. LAZARIDIS: PoliskaichorastinarchaiaMakedoniakaithraki, PraktikaarchaiologikouSynedriou, Kavala 9-11/5/1986.
  1. samsara Demetriou, Historical Geography of Eastern Macedonia in antiquity, Thessaloniki 1976.

Written by Theodore Demosth. Lyberakis

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