| The conspiracy of Darius

Βρισκόμαστε στα 522 e.g.. The biggest Empire the world shocked by a dynastic crisis which has all the features history detective mystery. The rightful King is to campaign in Egypt, and conquer. Always been despotic, but it seems now it sinks into madness as murdering members of their family, including his brother, for whom, perhaps not unfairly, maintains suspicion that questioning the Royal throne.
On the way back, the King receives a Messenger who informs him that in Persia the authority has undertaken a usurper who presented as brother of King. Shortly after the Prince is injured in the leg under unclear circumstances and soon dies from trauma. A group of Persian nobles conspire to overthrow the usurper. The designs of the conspirators succeed and the Royal power leads to the man who will bring the Persian Empire at the height of its glory.

Let's see how they present the story the various sources available, before we try to explain the narratives they, the inconsistencies and contradictions between them, and, then, to identify any elements of historical reality can contain or ... hide.

(J). The sources

As the greatest achaimenidologos of our time, Pierre Briand [«Histoire de l'Empire Perse (De Cyrus à Alexandre)«, Fayard, Paris, 1996, SLE. 109], the historian attempting to clarify the dynastic crisis of 522 depends almost entirely from the Greek sources of the classical antiquity, in particular by Herodotus.

(J). (A). The Greek sources

(a). Herodotus's version: The historian from Halicarnassus presents the Persian King Kambysi as a mentally disordered person. The insanity of having manifests itself as the first victim of the sibling brother, the Smerdi. The rage of the ruler against his brother has, According to Herodotus, dual cause: Firstly, the insult to the person of the King, When his brother is the only one of the Persians who tries and manages to bend the bow to bring gift to Kambysi the ruler of Ethiopia. Secondly, that Cambyses sees in dream brother sits in the Royal throne. These reasons are enough to his order of, the Prixaspi, to assassinate Smerdi:
"Cambyses tree, as legoysi AIgyptioi, dia aytika τὸ ἀdikima Helene emani, ewn oyde erstwhile frenzied. and first men of kakwn exergasato the ἀdelfeon Smerdin eonta patros mitros and of a, the ἀpepempse es fthonw ἐξ AIgyptoy Persas, ὅτι τὸ mounos Persewn Te toxon oson daktyloys of two eIryse, τὸ AIthiopos ineikan founded of the Ichthyofagoi, τῶν ἄllwn Persewn he oydeis Te egeneto oIos. ἀpoichomenoy es Smerdios wn Persas of opsin eIde ἐν ypnw of Cambyses in toiinde· edoxe the ἄggelon elthonta Persewn ἀggellein ἐκ as in thronw in basiliiw in Izomenos oyranou kefali on Smerdis of psayseie. respect of these deisas ewytou wn non-min ἀpokteinas ὁ ἀdelfeos ἄrchi, refer Prixaspea es Persas, os in these ἀnir loyal Persewn, ἀpokteneonta min. • He ἀnabas es ἀpekteine Smerdin Sousa, oI legoysi men ἄgrin ep᾽ exagagonta, oI he es the proagagonta sea katapontwsai ' Erythrin (Herodotus, Book Iii Thalia, 30, 1-3).

The Halicarnassus lists then all crimes committed within the paranoia of Cambyses: kills sister and wife, which indeed pose. Burying alive a dozen young noble Persians. Tormenting the former King of Lydia, the Croesus. In the same context and the gruesome execution of Royal judge Sisamni, the Cambyses, judging him guilty of deception, order to shreds and with his skin to dress the throne on which it sits the new Royal judge (the Otanis, son of slain), so as to be doubly careful when issuing its decisions.

While, though, the Cambyses remains in Egypt, two brothers who are Magicians, i.e. the caste of Iranian priests, take advantage of the fact that the murder of his brother King had kept secret. One of them, the Patizeithis staged in the Royal throne his brother who bore the same name as the murdered brother Kambysi and seemed very! New arrive and in the camp of Kambysi, on his return from Egypt, While he is in Syria.
"He Kambysi Cyrus chronizonti AIgypton in and around parafronisanti epanisteatai ἄndres Magicians two ἀdelfeoi, of the eteron kataleloipee of oIkiwn meledwnon of Cambyses. oytos di wn the epanesti mathwn Te Smerdios in mortem as kryptoito genomenos, and as eIisan epistamenoi by oligoi ayton Persewn, Oi polloi he perieonta min eIdeiisan. Respect these boyleysas one epecheirise toisi basiliioisi. in the ἀdelfeos, the eIpa by synepanastinai, oIkws τὸ Smerdi in eIdos even Kirou, the ewytou ἀdelfeon of Cambyses eonta ἀpekteine· in te omoios in Smerdi di eIdos and di and oynoma twyto had Smerdin. Touton the Magician Patizeithis ἄndra ἀnagnwsas ws of the aytos always diaprixei, eIse ἄgwn es the basiliion thronon. He poiisas Helene preacher on Te ἄlli diepempe and AIgypton proereonta di es and priest in stratw as Smerdios of the loipou ἀkoystea Cyrus ἀll᾽ eIi Kambysew worst.

OI Te di wn ἄlloi proigoreyon these preachers and di and ep᾽ tachtheis of AIgypton, eyriske gar Kambysea and the straton eonta ἐν Ἀgbatanoisi Syriis .........., stas proigoreye es Middle home entetalmena ἐκ of Sorcerer ' (Herodotus, Thalia, 61-62).

Initially, the Achaimenidis occupied by remorse, because he realizes he probably unfairly had executed his brother, a and others eventually was the usurper. Then, the logic prevails and Cambyses decides to return as soon as possible in Susa to face the usurper. As, though, coming up on his horse, his sword leaving casing and seriously injures leg.

"Enthauta ἀkoysanta Kambysea Smerdios etypse the oynoma the ἀlitheii of Te reasons and of enypnioy· os edokee in ypnw ἀpaggeilai to speak in these as Smerdis es basiliion thronon Izomenos the psayseie on the oyranou kefali. He Mathwn as vain ἀpolwlekws the eIi ἀdelfeon, ἀpeklaie Smerdin· He ἀpoklaysas and periimektisas on ἁpasi symfori ἀnathrwskei of the Ippon, ἐν echwn now the tachistin es strateyesthai Sousa of the Magon. And the ἀnathrwskonti of the koleou of the Ippon xifeos ὁ ἀpopiptei Miki, He gymnwthen the sword the paiei miron ... in he ekechristo Boytous eti erstwhile ἐκ polios ἐν Ἀgbatanoisi teleytisein the bion. men di toisi ḟ ἐν Midikoisi Ἀgbatanoisi edokee teleytisein hoary, ἐν toisi in these home always prigmata· τὸ christirion ἐν toisi he Syrii Ἀgbatanoisi elege ἐν fonts. And as di epeiromenos epytheto .......... then polios τὸ oynoma, its on the symforis of Te ἐκ of Magician and ekpepligmenos of trwmatos eswfronise, He syllabwn τὸ theopropion eIpe "enthauta Kambysea Cyrus peprwmenon teleytan the esti"» (64).

The Cambyses realizes that probably the end of approaching. Invites the nobles and reveals the truth. The murder of his brother, the reasons why the decided, the usurpation of power by the Sorcerer (65). However, Persian nobles of Kambysi sequence doesn't seem to believe the conspiracy Magi and rather believe that usurper is his brother King. Attach the words of Kambysi in hate he had for his brother and believe that its purpose is to make all the Persians to switch against the second and not let him on the throne of Achaemenides. A few days later, the gangrene caused by the trauma gets the Kambysi in the world of the dead.

"he these meta as esfakelise te the osteon and miros esapi of rapidly, ἀpineike Kambysea the Cyrus, basileysanta men home always epta etea and five minas, He ἄpaida τὸ ersenos eonta parapan and brood female. Persewn he pareousi ἀpistii toisi toys ypekechyto polli Magicians echein home prigmata, ἀll᾽ of eIpein Kambysea ipisteato diaboli home of the death Smerdios eIpe, These ekpolemwthi Ina πᾶν τὸ Persikon» (66, 2-3).

For seven months the usurper reign undisturbed. Even filolaϊka takes steps to consolidate his power (three-year tax relief). Then, Herodotus displays the Otani, one of the eygenesteroys Persians, suspecting fraud of pseudo-Smerdios. He asks his daughter, the Faidymi, which was Kambysi's wife and now this that appears as Smerdis. She replies that she has never seen the Smerdi in person. The Otanis tells her to ask the Atossa except Consort is and sister of Kambysi and Smerdios. She will know well whether it is her brother or someone usurper. The Faidymi responds that they cannot see the Atossa, a and are on different partitions and the King does not allow a Royal wife to see the other (68). The Otanis begins to ensure that impersonation. Knowing that Cambyses had punish the magician Smerdi for some misconduct by cutting of the ears ("he said the Sorcerer of Smerdios ἄrchwn of Kambysew Kuros home wta ἀpetame ep᾽ aItii tini smikri worst municipalities»), asks his daughter to finds the same if the "King" have ears or not. When the Faidymi gives the expected negative answer, the Otanis puts in place his plan. Calls on two other noble, the Aspathini and the Gobrya and decide to kill the magician usurper. Each conspirator undertakes to find and another accomplice (the Otanis shall associate itself with the Intaferni, the Gobryas and Aspathinis Megabyzo him the Hydarnes). Susa is displayed and another great Persian Aristocrat, Darius, whom else render immediately participant in their design.

«events he said ex es paraginetai Dareios Sousa Ystaspeos's of Persewn by ikwn· having these in di gar • patir yparchos. epei wn oytos ἀpiketo, ex toisi of Persewn edoxe and Dareion prosetairisasthai» (70).

Darius takes a leading role in conspiracy. While the Otanis proposes to delay the implementation of the plan until you were implementing the plan up to ensure their success, Darius proposes to act immediately, view required (76). Indeed, Darius and Gobryas invade the Royal apartments of the Palace in Susa and the first kills the Sorcerer usurper, While the second has previously immobilise (78).

Then, the conspirators talked about what to do regarding the governance of the Empire. Herodotus shows to express political views most Greek. The Otanis supports a form of democracy, as he talks about "equality" with the ancient Greek meaning of the word (i.e.. the equal participation of citizens in the offices and responsibilities of governance) (80), the Megabyzos speaks as a supporter of the oligarchy (81), While Darius supports maintaining the institution of kingship (82). As expected, Darius's view prevails, and it remains to be decided how you select the new King among seven. The way he is ... ippomanteia: King will become the one who the next dawn his horse will first chlimintrisei (84)! Darius course will beat, Thanks to the fallacy of the ippokomoy, of Oibari (85-87).

"Te di Dareios ὁ Ystaspeos basileys ἀpededekto» (88,1).

In order to legalize more power, Darius marries two daughters of Cyrus, the Atossa, He was a husband and Kambysi and pseudo-Smerdios, and Artystwni, but the Parmy, daughter of Smerdios, his brother Kambysi, and, fysikotata, the daughter of Otani, which revealed the impersonation of the magician, the Faidymi (88, 2).

(b). The remaining ancient Greek sources: Without scope and eloquence of mythistorimatikis story of history from Bodrum, other Greek authors refer to Persian dynastic crisis of 522 or to persons and events about this.

In Cyropaedia, Xenophon doesn't deal with events subsequent death of Cyrus (If we can say that in particular the Athenian moralising textbook deals with events). Commemorates the sibling brother Kambysi as Tanaoxari.

To The Persians, Aeschylus mentions his brother Kambysi, which calls Mardo: "Cyrus he pais ... Fifth he irxen Mardos, patra aIschyni thronoisi t I ἀrchaioisi» (773-775). Reports that reigned and features shame of the dynasty, but no talks about usurpation by a Sorcerer.

Much more extensive reference to facts makes the Rules, the Greek archiatros of the Persian Court in the reign of Artaxerxi Ii (405-359). In Persian, He Ctesias calls Tanyoxarki his brother Kambysi. Cause of loss of Tanyoxarki is, in the Ktisia, the fierce battle with the Sorcerer Sfendadati. The magician the MAL Tanyoxarki in Kambysi, claiming that intends to usurp the kingship. The Cambyses convinced and orders the execution of his brother. After this, the Sfendadatis operates the great Visual resemblance to the Prince and commanding Bactria as satrap for five years. At this point appear in the foreground two eunuchs, the Artasyras and Bagapatis, who put the Sfendadati on Royal throne. A third eunuch, the Izabatis, threatens to reveal the scam. The conspirators heidrek (Persian, 10-13).

Apart from the writers of classical antiquity, There is also the Justin, Roman historian of the 3rd-4th century. a.d. ((J), 9, 4-11). And he says the dream of Kambysi in Egypt, He sees his brother ... Mergi sitting in the Royal throne. The Cambyses relying on a trusted following, the magician Comet, to assassinate Mergi. The Comet performs the assigned mission, but in the meantime dies the Cambyses the magician decides to raise to the throne his brother, the Oropasti, who has great skill, well understood, to ... much like in appearance with the murdered brother Kambysi.

Between the different versions of the story are impressive differences in the name of his brother Kambysi (Smerdis, Tanaoxaris, Tanyoxarkis, Mardos and Mergis), but the usurper (Smerdis, Sfendadatis, Oropastis) or the plotters that the raise to the throne (Patizeithis, Artasyras and Bagopatis, Comet). There Are, though, some fundamental common elements, as notes and the Briand (ibid., SLE. 110-111):

– The murder of his brother Kambysi, by order of King Achaimenidi.

– The replacement of the Prince from a magician.

– The striking similarity in appearance between the Magician and the Prince.

Essential differentiation occurs as to the chronological order of events. According to Herodotus, both the murder of Smerdios and usurpation of the Throne from the magician of the same name occur at the time of Kambysi's campaign in Egypt. By Ctesias, Instead, places the assassination of Prince five years ago the usurpation. When Justin, end, and the murder and misappropriation after the death of Kambysi. Apparently, in circles of the Persian nobility, but among the Greeks in Asia minor and in particular Greece, should, as early as the 5th century, to were various stories about the rise of Darius in power, which rather anemixan or interpreted by Herodotus and the followers of.

(J). (B). The Persian source: the version of Darius

Fortunately, We have at our disposal and a Persian source and indeed the great protagonist, Darius. In deeply cut into the rock monumental inscription of Mpechistoyn, the Persian ruler gives his version onthe how found the throne of Achaemenides.

"Conquer the Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, and he had a sibling brother called Mparntigia. Then the Cambyses killed Mparntigia. The murder he was not known to the people. Later the Cambyses left for Egypt and, then, the people rebelled. After this, the lie dominated in Persia, in Midia and in other peoples. Then it appeared someone, a magician who say Gkaoymata. He rebelled in Paϊsigiaoybanta, near mount Arakantri, the 14th day of the month Bigiaxna. He lied to the people: "I'm the Mparntigia, the son of Cyrus, his brother Kambysi». Then, whole people rose up against the Kambysi and written with the rebel and in Persia and in Midia and in other countries. The wizard usurped the Royal power in the 9th day of the month Gkarmapanta [= 1.3.522]. Then the Cambyses died of natural death ...

Anyone, Persian or Midos ... could not get the Kingdom from the hands of Gkaoymata, of the magician. The people feared him too. He killed many who had known the Mparntigia. This is why the kill: "Do not learn that I am not the Mparntigia, the son of Cyrus '. No one dared say anything to Gkaoymata the magician, until appeared I. ..

With the help of Mazda Achoyra and with few men I killed the magician and his supporters. Killed him in a fortress called Sikagiaoybati, in the area of Nisagia, in Midia. The got the Kingdom and the power of Achoyra Mazda became King ... " (inscription of the Mpechistoyn, 1the column, 10-13).

Behold men who were present when I killed the Gkaoymata, the magician who claimed he was the Mparntigia. Worked with me as a loyal supporters.

The Bintarna,son of Bagiaspara [= Intafernis]

The Oytana, son of Thoykra [= Otanis]

The Gkaoymparoyba, son of Marntoynigia [= Gobryas, father of Mardonioy]

The Bintarna, son of Mpagkampinia [= Hydarnes]

The Mpagkampoyxa, son of Ntatoybachya [= Megabyzos]

The Arntoymanis, son of Bakaoyna " (inscription of the Mpechistoyn, 4the column, 68-69).

Among the detailed storytelling of Herodotus and the Declaration of Darius the great, there are enough commonalities, like some essential differences.

– Darius places chronicles the murder of his brother Kambysi before the departure of the monarch for the Egyptian campaign, While the Halicarnassus in space that Cambyses is located in Egypt.

– Different names. Even if we accept that the ' Smerdis ' transposing into Greek of the Persian name "Mparntigia", diversification remains in the name of the usurper Magician, that according to Herodotus is again ' Smerdis ', While in Darius ' Gkaoymata ' (name that alludes to the Comet of Ioystinoy, that, though, is a conspirator against Kambysi, but it raises in the throne his brother, the Oropasti).

– The role of Darius is presented and evaluated differently in one and in the other text (Briant, ibid., SLE. 112, 120). Darius does reason for conspiracy, mentions only loyal supporters (which coincide almost exactly with those mentioned as conspirators Herodotus: the only differentiation relates to the Arntoymanis, who can not be identified with the Aspathini of Herodotus). The Royal power, Darius has to Achoyra Mazda (and to himself).

– How and where killing the usurper. Instead of murder in Palace, Darius talks about battles and capture Fort in which he had holed up with supporters of the magician.

II. An attempted explanation

It is possible to reconcile all these narrations and especially that of Herodotus as Darius; How much historical truth contain; Let's try to see a little more clearly.

(a). Opponents brothers: Before departing for his expedition to Central Asia, that would be fatal for him, Cyrus (probably the 530) He named his successor officially the greatest son, the Kambysi. The youngest son, the Mparntigia, the "compensated" diorizontas the satrap of the Bactrian, with the privilege of exemption from the obligation to return tax ypoteleias to his brother. (Briant, ibid., SLE. 60, 113). The taste of Cyrus for the first born were from long-established: already from the 539, had him named King of Babylon.

The completely negative image of Kambysi which give the classical sources should be treated with a lot of reservations. As noted by Briand it literary place, often combined with the known arguments on Persian decadence (ibid., SLE. 60, 109). Usually there is a contrapuntal presentation of "good" Cyrus, "father" of the Empire, and the despotic and demented Kambysi. Typical is the placement of Herodotus "Cambyses he despot, Kuros he father ... • He ὅτι chalepos te in, oligwros, • He ὅτι ipios Te ἀgatha and always» sfi emichanisato (Iii "Thalia", 85, 3). General, all evils and sins that the sources attribute it to Kambysi is not at all certain that correspond to historical reality (see. e.g.. Briand, ibid., SLE. 66 op., where, based on Egyptian sources, the historian attempting to refute the accusations of destruction of the sacred Kambysi).

In any case, the enmity between Kambysi and Mparntigia/Smerdios is an indisputable fact, a and a lot of evidence shows that the second never accepted the paternal choice: the negation of (and even two times) be presented to the Royal Court at the invitation of his brother, the anecdote that captures Herodotus about the arc of King of Ethiopia etc.

(b). The big scam (;) Darius: The most paradoxical aspect of the story is ultimately the existence of usurper Magician, that exploits the fact that the "murder" of his brother King had kept secret. This element, They apparently raised first himself Darius and accepted the Greek authors, It is suspected from the outset. Darius has every interest to present himself as a natural exponent of Sogdiana and San initiator of restoration of dynastikis legality. Does, well, the magician usurper (Gkaoymata/Smerdis/Sfendadatis/Oropastis) It is simply a spurious spin of Darius, in order to hide that the real usurper of Royal power (and killer of his brother Kambysi and most legitimate heir to the) was he; The question that put nearly all contemporary historians and most suspected that the answer should be affirmative! This is also the place of Pierre Briand (ibid., SLE. 112 op.). The same version also presents the Gore Vidal in his novel Creation. Moreover, It seems incredible the ' fact ' that Royal spouses Atossa and Faidymi didn't realize anything associated with the murder of his brother Kambysi and his replacement by a magician usurper (Briant, ibid., SLE. 112).

Therefore, If there was one usurper of Royal power in the years of Kambysi, He must have been originally his brother, the Mparntigia/Smerdis. As we saw previously, even in Herodotus (Iii "Thalia", 66), Persian nobles sequence Kambysi have precisely this belief. If we follow the chronological order of events according to Herodotus, the Cambyses, having subjugated Egypt, gets the way back in spring 522. While in Syria is injured in the leg and gangrene causes his death at the beginning of summer. Based on the story of Darius in the inscription of Mpechistoyn, the Gkaoymata declared himself King in early March 522. Combining these figures with the animosity between the two brothers, We can conclude that indeed the Mparntigia rebelled against his brother. But either he was usurper, or not, After the death of Kambysi the Mparntigia/Smerdis becomes legal successor of his brother, who died childless.

(c). Literary fiction; We can consider that the narrative of Herodotus about the conspiracy of seven and the rise of Darius in the throne meet the historical events; Too difficult. The symbolic number seven is suspect. The various illustrated facts (the disclosure of the identity of the magician from Faidymi, the selection of a new King by using ippomanteias, the trick of ippokomoy Darius) seem to constitute elements of an imaginative literary screenplay and only. As for the deliberations of Seven concerning the future Constitution of Persia, These are taken directly from Greek political discussions (Briant, ibid., SLE. 121).

Conspiracy, of course, must have been. The participants are all superior Persians nobles who probably belonged to the intimate environment of Kambysi and had every reason to believe that her brother and successor would behave absolutely hostile. The Otanis was indeed among the greatest nobles: his sister, the Kassandani, She was the wife of Cyrus, his daughter Faidymi was married to the Kambysi (and then the Mparntigia. Darius is son of Ystaspi, which inadvertently Herodotus (Iii ' Thalia ', 70) as Governor of Persia, but it was actually rather satrap of Parthia during that period (inscription of the Mpechistoyn, 2the column, 35/ Briant, ibid., SLE. 124), had not accompanied the Kyro in his campaign in North and Central Asia. Darius himself had already distinguished personal, having been faretroforos of Cyrus and satellite (arshtibara) of Kambysi, He held i.e. axiom that make it first in rank among the nobles of King's suite. Of Course, though Darius is trying to present itself as legitimate successor, may had close kinship with the Kyro and Kambysi, While it is difficult to accept that belonged to a minor branch of the Royal family (Briant, ibid., SLE. 122 op.). The attempt (the inscription of Mpechistoyn) to display a family tree that brings him diseggono of the founder of the Achaimeni dynasty (person who is not mentioned by any earlier Persian source) is, When Briand, simply rearranging the dynastikis legitimacy solely on the basis of the interest of Darius.

Of Course, There is also a Variant that discredits morally alafghany when absolutely. Be considered that is responsible and the accident that deprived him of his life Kambysi. In such a case, Darius is the standard of immoral conspirator and the terminator of the legitimate imperial dynasty. However, it is not necessary to go that far and to accept both pulled matters (except maybe though we admire the glory and imagination of Herodotus).

Besides, the Empire probably won with the dynastic change. Darius was to prove to be the more capable monarch of: giving not only the greatest territory (with the annexation of three of the Indian satrapies elsewhere), but the most significant economic development. Unfairly i.e. featured Herodotus ' kapilo ';

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Amphipolis. gr | The goddess Demeter and the custom of Mpampws in Serres

Preah Baybw: Aristophanes of Initiation

According to the Orphic tuition Goddess Dimitra He arrived in Elefsina searching to find the Daughter of. THE Dimitra looking for the Daughter of nine days and nine nights without eating and without drinking, shouting her name constantly….
The old lady was looking at transformed, with unbound hair, tattered, mute and inconsolable, vivid picture of maternal grief. The tenth day, After an unpleasant encounter with the Neptune, among the flocks of Ogkioy, arrived in disguised Elefsina. He sat on a stone named sullen, near Kallichoron shaft. In this terrible situation full of immense grief and mourning have found the goddess the four virgins, the Callidice, the Kleisidiki, the Dimw and Kallithoi the biggest of the daughters of the King of Eleusis Celeus, the time that went into the well to fill with water the bronze ydries the. Asked what is the replied that called DIO, they were kidnapped from the Crete Pirates, of whom had escaped and called for work.
The new led to Palace, where, the King Keleos and his wife Metanira (in other Baybw), the greeted friendly, and invited to stay and become a nurse of Dimofwnta of the newborn Prince. It is said that once he entered, a celestial light covered everything. and the Queen Metanira, full of AWE, He stood up and gave the throne of, which goddess but refused.

According to another version the hosted the Baybw who was the wife of Dysayloy, his brother King of Eleusis Celeus, his mother Triptolemos, of Eyboyloy, of Prwtonois and of the Nisas.
The most likely scenario, however, as to what exactly was the Baybw is the following:
So when I found the Goddess Dimitra the Palace still remains silent and inconsolable for the loss of the Kore and because the saw depressed gave Warren but she didn't accept.
Then the daughter of chwli Celeus, the Iambe (in another version of therapaina Metaneiras and daughter Panos and of the Echo) to soothe the sorrow of tried to console with comedians coarse but the nanny lyrics, the Preah Baybw, is that the console Dimitra and managed with jokes and lewd gestures to entertain, to make her smile and drink the imbroglio; that put an end to the long abstinence from food.
And the way:
He sat down opposite the goddess with open legs, He lifted up her dress and with indecent gestures showed her ugly body and the posterior and sighed like I laboured.
And unexpectedly from the vulva of Bayboys forward by the Iacchus who was laughing through the womb of. THE Iacchus was the divine child of The Eleusinian Mysteries and it is said, How was the child of Persephone, I had coming to announced the head of the ceremony priest of mysteries. Is the deity who leads the course of initiates to Eleusinian Mysteries.

In another version he was the son of the goddess Demeter. THE Iacchus, lead us and not arbitrarily, in nickname the God Dionysus, the name Bacchus, that plus sound, certainly not random, in the events of Demeter. Maybe well, the implicit and hidden of the performed The Eleusinian Mysteries It was what he saw just, in naked matrix of Baboys the Goddess Dimitra.
End, When other, the triptych Iambe, Dimitra and Baybw forming the famous Trinity, Virgin, bride and old lady,gonimikoi notation about the stages of wheat: seed, bloom and summer.
The name Baybw means “matrix” from the word groin the place between the degree, i.e.. the groin. THE Baybw well it was feminine divinity gonimiki that the name refers to the female vulva. In another version, however, comes from the baybw ' koimizw, lull ", < baϋ bau [ARC. pronunciation bau bau], imitation of gabgismatos of exaytoy and dog shows and the verb baykalizw {baykalisa, -tika, -Fury} = tricks or tranquilize (someone) with false promises or cultivating futile expectations..
The effect of Orphic the Baybw replaces the Iambe who is the personification of the the comic element in Eleusinian mysteries and change serious and melancholy character who had until then. The songs are called Lampoon character and is in iambic meter in honor of Iambis. The sixth day of Eleusinian mysteries that was devoted to Iakcho, eleysinioy River Bridge Kifisou, the faithful among them exchanged obscenities and lewd jokes,chontrologa and skwmmata, that was «gefyrismoi». in imitation of the vulgar teasing Bayboys- Iambis.

So the Iambe and Baybw personify the obscene songs Iambikoy measure that tragoydiotan to relieve emotional tension during the The Eleusinian Mysteries.

This tradition is not lost. Continues through the centuries to our days.
Every year, at 8 Jan, in areas of the County Serron and of the Thrace the custom of “Mpampws” that is fertility celebrations. S.’ This custom dominant role have women, with the men to remain in their homes or watching from afar. During this day, all married women of the village, under the sounds of musical instruments gather in the central square and from there move to the home of mpampws (Baybw) to offer gifts. Babo said the elder woman of the village, that was in the past and debts mamis. (n.b. Baybw-old-birth of iakchoy)
Then, forming procession, with skwptika dance songs and wine, the square carry embellished as a bride. The events are unsuitable for men's ears. If Fri’ all these daring someone to approach, then the women chasing him, the splash and trying to make a garment, which then would auction. After the end of the procession Fiesta “behind closed doors”, with skwptika songs, traditional dishes and wine, till you drop!
The custom was brought by the Thrakiwtises stone of Eastern Rumelia and celebrate every year since their establishment in new Stone Serron. Much later spread to other villages of the Prefecture of Serres. According to folklorists, the custom has roots in ancient Greek and is reminiscent of the "Thesmoforia" and more "Alwa", they were in Athens at the same time. Over the years we have seen how important-and essential- is the presence of Bayboys so that dominated and other observances outside the Eleusinian.

Amphipolis. gr | Olympiad

Olympiad: Mother of m. Alexander and Priest who lived with snakes

Slept next to reptiles and snakes thilaze the strong personality of the mother of Alexander the great, her relationship with Philip and odd relationships with snakes.

He was born in 373 e.g. in Passarwna, ancient city of Epirus. She was the second daughter of Neoptolemus II, King of the molossians of Epirus and had a sister, Troas. When was 11 years, her father died and the throne took her uncle, Arrybas, who married older sister, 16 years then.

The Olympiad served in the Oracle of Dodona, While he had been initiated into the Bacchanalian mysteries.

Was priestess of Kaviria Mysteries of Samothrace. Later, Philip Ii he was initiated into the mysteries of Samothrace, where he met and fell in love with the Olympics, that earned him the most gifted child, Alexander. She lived as the wife of Philip II in Pella and at Aigai (current Vergina). "The Olympiad thought it was Thunder and lightning fell into her belly and took fire and flames around and dismantled suffused».

Thus refers to the birth of Alexander Plutarch. It is said that the Olympiad confessed to her husband, Philip B, that Alexander was not son of, but that was captured by a snake that appeared in her sleep, which, According to legend, was incarnation of Jupiter.

The Olympiad appears multiple times with snakes, like the us mainada witnessed ample sources: "They saw snakes huge in size, so tame and from, nourished by women and sleep through along with the children even when stepped on, No erethizontan, and when the bother, No orgizontan, and drank milk from the nipple just like babies – there are plenty of Yonder [in Pella], and from these it appears that emerged from old legend for the Olympiad, ότι, i.e., When kyoforoyse Alexander, some snake slept with her. (Lucian, Alexander 7.1).

Plutarch also reports that appeared with domesticated snakes: "The Olympiad […] brought to the bakchikoys troupes large domesticated snakes, which many times were coming out of the Ivy and the hidden canisters, and as it was wound around the rods of women and wreaths, startled men». (Alexander 2.9.6) It is said that shortly before the birth of Alexander Philip had seen a snake to surround the sleeping Olympiad.

In the turbulent and tumultuous life of meeting big assets and large defects. As a doting mother, She had set her life on a single purpose and served with passion: How would the son of the succession to the throne of Macedonia into the maelstrom of the machinations and intrigues in the courtyard of Pella. Indeed was accused by some for the murder of her husband, which the humbled and married a younger woman. Maybe the Olympics felt the threat of a possible offspring of the younger wife of Philip and also possible online contenders of long-cherished throne. Adored her son and wished that she believed best for her beloved Alexander. And the love was mutual.

When Antipater, She had left Lieutenant in Macedonia, He wrote to Alexander, located in Asia, an extensive letter, full of complaints about the Olympics, Alexander the great said, After reading: "I don't know that a single tear Antipater of my mother enough, to erase a thousand such letters!»
In June 323 e.g. the Olympiad is experiencing the ultimate loss. The son of monakribos, whom he had many years to meet, dying away of, shortly before leaving for the Arabia, by fever. Never wanted to accept that Alexander the great died of natural death and mourned unceasingly that lingered atafos in Babylon for two years, because of the struggles for succession.

As if that were not enough, Alexander succeeds not the legitimate son of Roxane and grandson of, but the mentally retarded son of Philip and Filinnas, Philip Aridaios. Exasperated the Olympiad takes refuge on the continent along with Roxanne and her grandson. Η Ολυμπιάδα, This leading woman who fought more than any other mother to her son finds the tragic end, the stoning ordered by kassandros, who left the corpse of atafo to rot.

Amphipolis. gr | Philosophers in the Alexandrian and Roman era

And ap᾽ wonderful panellinian campaign,
the victorious, the resplendent,
the perilaliti, the glorious
as other doxasthike no no,
the unparalleled: bgikam᾽ we;
Greek new world, Megas.
K. Cavafy, "In 200 e.g. "
Alexandrian or Hellenistic era (323-31 e.g.)
Historical circumstances

The conquests of Stretched caused big changes in Greek.
As the Greek world had a smooth and isozygiasmeni picture. There was a kernel, Greece became, While over seas, on the coast of the Mediterranean and the Sea, the settlements had created a regional Crown of Greek plants. The core supported and fed the region and the region supported and fed the core. Yet, both in Greece and in regional facilities, people had a common language, common religion, Customs and traditions – all Greek.
Political unit was the City-State and only the Government parallaze from place to place, both in Greece and in the region, where even the Greek cities in Asia minor happened and found previously subservient to the Persians.

They now changed as Alexandre crushed the Persian State and led the Greek East as the Indus River and South as Egypt. So the Greeks dominated in number of foreigners, alloglwssoys and Muslims peoples – peoples as one place wanted, as a point were forced to ellinisoyn, i.e. to learn Greek and to accept all sorts of Greek influences. From these ellinizontes foreigners got its name the Hellenistic era, but often the call and Alexandrian – not from the Megalexandro, but from Alexandria, Egypt, that for centuries was the most important spiritual Center.

After the death of King Alexander,the Mega the 323 e.g., the conquests of shared, not without disputes and wars, successors. Of the kingdoms created stood out with their acne Seleucid Kingdom in Syria, with capital Antioch, the attalid Kingdom in Asia minor, with its capital in Pergamum, and the Kingdom of Ptolemaic Dynasty in North Africa, with its capital in Alexandria. Important center stood for a while and the Macedonian Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of the Antigonid.
This "new world" was really "great": vast territories are, huge distances, countless multitudes of people, populous States, huge range of commercial and other operations. The Greek products had demand in East, like many East products had demand in Greek areas.
So, the manufacturers stepped up production, transport, especially the seafood, developed and commercial and banking enterprises offered opportunities for immense profits.

Decisive historical phenomenon of that era was the emergence and rapid advance of Romans, that ypotaxan one after another early Greek, then and ellinokratoymenes countries: the subjugation of English regions of southern Italy completed the 270 e.g., Sicilian 210 e.g., of Macedonia and Epirus in 148 e.g.. and the rest of Greece the 146 e.g..

The 133 e.g.. the King of Pergamon, bequeathed the Kingdom of Asia minor to the Romans; 64 e.g.. the Romans conquered the Syria and 31 e.g., After his victory at the battle of Actium, Octavian August and finally crushed the power of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt. The latter date is the conventional boundary between Hellenistic or Alexandrian era and Greco-roman which followed.


Most important cultural center in the Hellenistic era was undoubtedly the Alexandria; but for the Global Center philosophy stayed Athens, where not only continued to operate the Academy and high school but were established and new schools. The integrated report of philosophical theories are not Grammatologias project, that is limited to an overview of schools, the most important representatives and their editorial work.[For Hellenistic Philosophy see. (C). Zographidis and b. Kalfas, Ancient Greek philosophers, ch. 9 Mr. SEM..]

The Academy of Plato-Mosaic Pompeii

The Academy continued the Platonic tradition, giving weight to ideas and to ideatoys numbers more than in the real world. At The Same Time, philosophers of the Academy came time to return to the Socratic tradition, focusing their interests on ethics, but questioning even the possibility of true knowledge. To describe the evolution of academic thought, historians of philosophy stood out after the Old Academy (Plato), two more phases: the Middle and new Academy.

The Academy of Plato in Athens

Important after the Speysippo and the Xenokrati (s.. 172) the scholarch of the Academy (314-270 e.g.) stood the polemon, They argued that the behaviour of human virtue must be consistent with the nature. He wrote several, Diogenes Laërtius tells us,[The Diogenes Laërtius, author of the 3rd ad. century (s.. 275), wrote the Philosophers Bion and doctrines synagogue, that is our best source for life and theories of ancient philosophers.] but they stayed and jokes were lost with the destruction of the Academy.
Student of Polemwna, and successor at the Academy, the crates of Athens, that "left behind books (other philosophical, more on comedy, other with public speeches and ambassadorial) but and notable students, among them the Arkesilao ... " (Diogenes Laërtius 4.23).

Arcesilaus and Karneadis-Arcesilaus was an ancient Greek philosopher and founder of the middle or Second Academy. He was a pupil of Theophrastus, the peripatetic, as well as the Polemwna and the Member.

The Arcesilaus from Asia minor Pitani (316-242 e.g.), disciple of the peripatetic Theophrastus and of Polemwna and of States, marked the shift from the Old to the Middle Academy. Specific, reacting to the dogmatism of Stoics, Arcesilaus returned to the swkratikoys dialektikoys ways: projected arguments supporting or negating any location without ends nowhere. Only correct attitude was in his opinion the epochi, like the edidaske Pyrrho (s.. 221), that is, the suspension of any final crisis – and this is not gi᾽ wrote nothing!
For the same reason, believing in the epochi, left no writings and the most important representative of the Middle Academy, the Karneadis of Cyrene (214-129 e.g.), more diligent man with important rhetorical skills, they dispatched to Rome[The 156 e.g.. the Athenians, to support their position in a dispute they had with the inhabitants of Oropos, sent to Rome instead of other representatives three philosophers: the academic Karneadi, the Stoic Diogenes and the trekking Kritolao. The three of them are impressed with the wisdom and eloquence the Romans so, so some conservative circles feared that would corrupt young and cared xaposteiloyn them the fastest.] He was speaking one day in favour of and the other against justice.
However, Although he believed that each fixed post is pointless, because there is no definite criterion of truth, again he taught that pondering the chances to avoid the big mistakes.

O carneades

O carneades was an ancient Greek skeptic philosopher of the second century b.c.. He was born in year 214 ή 213 e.g.. in the Greek city of Cyrene in North Africa. Young still came to Athens and studied at the Academy of Plato, where he excelled and was assigned the boss. Main source CVS Karneadi information is the work of Diogenes Laertioy, Lives of the philosophers.[Lives and gnwmai of in filosofia eydokimisantwn, Book Iv].
The Karneadis was born in Cyrene Libya the 214 ή 213 e.g.. and soon came in Athens, where joined at the Academy. In Athens, He studied the Igisino of Pergamum who, then, was led by the Academy as Scholarch.[2] Grappled intensively with the teachings of the Stoics, especially with the work of the late major stwikoy philosopher Chrysippoy. He attended also courses on the dialectic of Diogenes Seleykio him (aka Diogenes the Babylonian) who was then the head of the Stoic school in Athens. At some point before 155 He was appointed, as successor to Igisinoy, the scholarch of the Academy of Plato. 155 e.g.. visited Rome as ambassadors of Athens he, the Critolaos of megalopolis the Peripatetic and stoic Diogenes Seleykios head. Cause was the negotiation of a fine 500 talents which had been imposed in the city of Athens for the destruction and looting of the city of Oropos. Messenger project was to achieve the elimination or at least reducing the penalty. There they introduced with lectures the philosophical ideas in the heart of Italy. The Karneadis in Rome gave two lectures on justice. At first the praised while the second socked. So won the admiration of the Roman youth with unsettled dialectic reasoning of. The result was a reduction of sentence in 100 talanta.

But the philosopher would also give lectures in the city and the public appearance of Karneadi attracted great attention. The Roman Senate with representatives of Cato the elder pushed for removal of the Rome, to avoid corrupting the youth.
The Karneadis in the lectures of proclaims the failure of metaphysics in General, Sears all philosophical doctrines & schools, denies the existence of natural law, considers inherently vague and undefined the meaning of Justice and, Therefore, the application of any legal system with this, While he believes in both senses awkwardness knowledge and logic.
According to the Karneadi, who further systematizing the teachings of Arkesilaoy of Pitinaioy, the absolute knowledge is a illusion while humans do not possess, Neither can hold, no criterion of truth, and therefore we cannot ever be truly sure of anything, only prisoners pithanokratikwn gnwsiologikwn possible.
Finding the most eylogofanwn of these possibilities is a thorny path that meanders between the ultimate question and the dicey dogmatism. With the Karneadi the Academy of Plato went into a new phase syntonoy skepticism that rejects any dogma and instrument approach of absolute truth.
Left no writings and many of his views are known only through his successor at the Academy (127/126 e.g.) Kleitomachoy. The Karneadis died of old age in Athens, the year 129 ή 128 e.g..

From the site of the Lyceum in Athens

The shift to the new Academy occurred after the destruction of the school, the library and the file by Sylla (84 e.g.), When head was Antiochus from Ashkelon of Syria (PR. Seleucid Kingdom). As philosopher Antiochus can and should be called selective, as his teaching was based on themes where academics, the ambulatory and the Stoic philosophers generally agree.
The eclecticism of the broadcast and the most famous disciple of, the Cicero, He attended his lessons when he visited Athens, the 77 e.g..
From the works of Plato's successors above are saved only limited excerpts and information.
The School continued its peripatetic philosopher's tradition of its founder, the empiricism and the cultivation of individual Sciences. Even though the academic work continued for centuries in this real pan-epistimio, the philosopher Aristotle's theory was neglected and the books of, with the exception of some external dialogues, lived unknown.
Station and renewal of its ambulatory continuation of philosophy was, the 1st b.c.. century, the discovery and publication of the works of Aristotle by the then head of Lyceum, the Andronicus of Rhodes (s.. 276).

Disciple of Aristotle Evdemos (42nd/3rd BC. αι.) turned, After the death of his teacher, Home Rhodos, where he founded his own school. As Theophrastus (s.. 176), the Evdemos stayed loyal to the Aristotelian teaching. Of the many sensible, Math, Astronomical etc.. best-known projects is the natural, where with a few variations and clarify the reference made Aristotle's work.

Disciple of Aristotle was Demetrios Falireas (42nd/3rd BC. αι.), orator, politician and legislator, that as a representative of Kassandrou ruled Athens for ten years and wanted, as a point and succeeded, to impose to the Athenians the ambulatory moral and political authorities. Respectively, in a large number of his works were dissertations Of laws, Of the Decade, Of demagogy, Of ritorikis etc etc.

The Straton of Sardis by the Lampsako was for many years a teacher of Ptolemy II before his successor Theophrastus at high school (287 e.g.). Of the many and varied projects that delivered that wrote most known were the theses on subjects like Cosmology and physics, Perhaps because they did not hesitate to disagree with Aristotle.
The Fasili Critolaos of megalopolis from Asia minor was Director of the Lyceum by the 180 as the 170 e.g.. Remarkable was his tendency to underestimate the political orators and General rhetorical, I saw "more botch job despite art». Value were gi᾽ him philosophers theorists as masters every virtue.
From the works of Theophrastus after hiking the Hellenistic philosophers survive not only limited excerpts and information.


ASSISTANT (341-271 e.g.)[More about the Adjunct and philosophy see. (C). Zographidis and b. Kalfas, Ancient Greek philosophers, ch. 10.] Biwsas Lathe.[«Live quietly (away from politics), you don't understand. "] Born in Samos by Athenian parents, but later moved with his family to the Colophon. [The Colophon was an ancient city of Ionia, built near the coast of Asia minor, between Lebedo and Efeso] According to tradition he studied in Naysifani, follower of Democritus, and on Pamfilo, follower of Plato.
Young lived in Mytilene and Lampsako, where he founded and its first school. Thirty-five years old he went to Athens, bought a House with a garden at the periphery of the city and first set up the school of, the garden, more a friendly community where everyone could come to symfilosofisei rather than the usual school concept.
His teaching has had success, Why respond to needs of the people of the time and because he with his personality and his lifestyle was a living example atarachoy and happy man: witnesses ' gratitude to his parents, the support to the brothers of, the kindness of the minions […], generally benevolent attitude towards all. Are not described with the words eysebeia to the gods and the country " (Diogenes Laërtius 10.10).

THE Assistant He believed that the purpose of philosophy is not to provide knowledge and skills, but to make people happy. So his attitude was negative towards rhetoric, the logic, math and other mental fields, as more valuable than the mind had, believed, the sensations. Positive concepts in teaching was self-sufficiency, offering freedom, the friendship, that contribute to security, wisdom, mental equanimity, more ap᾽ all the pleasure, Unlike the pain, the fear, regret and deprivation.
Pleasure Epicurus saw syddeti with human nature and not stood out by virtue. Characteristic and the teaching of the death, you do not need, said, at all to the fear, because "as we exist we don't present the death, and when death is present, does not exist we» (Diogenes Laërtius 10.125).

The writings of Epicurus was huge: over 40 theses, among them one Of Nature in 37 books. Our hands reached ((a)) the project LINKS: Kyriai doxai, where were recorded for didactic use, well formulated in simple reason, some basic posts,[A newer gnwmologio of Epicurus survives in the Vatican Library.] ((b)) the testament of, and ((c)) three letters – important, as one exposes condensed his views on Physics, in other celestial phenomena, and in the third for the moral.
Information about teaching and excerpts from the works of Epicurus rescue us crowd yet sources, e.g.. the karboyniasmenoi papyri of the Villa of Piswna in Heraklion, near Pompei, which when read reveal fragments of the writings of Filodimoy.[The Philodemus of Gadara of Syria (CA. 110-40 e.g.), philosopher and poet, He lived for a time in Naples, southern Italy, where the teaching, the acquaintances and many of the writings helped to spread the philosophy of Epicurus.]

Successors of Epicurus There have been many, the school was kept alive as the 1st b.c.. century, and his teaching much more. Particularly important was the spread of epicurean philosophy in Rome, where among the friends and fans of included figures such as Horace, the Seneca, Lucretius on ap᾽ all, that his work "nature of things" (De rerum natura) is a comprehensive report of physical theory of Epicurus.

Competitive, Yes and hostile, in the garden stood the second philosophical school founded and flourished in the Hellenistic years, the Arcade. The extremely long duration and the change of leading historians of philosophy to distinguish, as in the case of the Academy, three phases: the Ancient and the Middle Arcade in the Hellenistic period, and the New Arcade in Roman times.[More about the philosophy of the lodge in the book of (c). Zwgrafidi and b. Kalfa, Ancient Greek philosophers, ch. 11.]

Zeno Kitieys

ZENON (332-261 e.g.)
Born in Kition in Cyprus, but the descent was from (the PR. Seleucid Kingdom) in Phoenicia. Twenty year old found in Athens, where for ten years in the States mathitepse cynical, in Stilpwna the megarian (s.. 168) and in the Polemwna of the Academy (s.. 214). In his thirties he began giving himself lessons in Varied lodge,[Varied (colorful) It was called one of the arcades of the Athenian market, because the number of murals adorned, among them the famous "iliupersis" polygnotos.] ap᾽ where she was named the school of. His teaching was from the outset a great success and brought together many important students.

The Athenians have made Lomé as lived, and when he died the relinquished, Although it was a stranger(not an Athenian citizen) , public grave in Keramikos – to know all, wrote the resolution, that • dimos Ἀthinaiwn τῶν ἀgathoys zwntas toys and tima and teleytisantas (Diogenes Laërtius 7.12). The philosophy had been intense effects, but this has not prevented it to be significantly different from both the classic systems of Plato and Aristotle and the modern teachings of Epicurus and considerations.
His was the Division of philosophy into ((a)) Logic, with content the epistemology, grammar, the rhetoric and logic, ((b)) Natural, Ontology content, Cosmology, Psychology and theology, and ((c)) Moral, where was giving and the greater weight. The aim of philosophy was (What else;) the Bliss, with a prerequisite the virtue.
An opinion of how his thinking has been with the trends of the season: "Not live apart in cities and organized into townships, having defined our own each place fairly, but all people to consider syndimotes and fellow; one is the way of life and one class, like a flock that symboskei and syntrefetai under the same regulation as a whole. "[Mi against cities mide oIkwmen Idiois ekastoi diwrismenois municipalities dikaiois, but all ἀnthrwpoys igwmetha dimotas and εἷς life politas; he ż and world, wsper ἀgelis nomw koinw syntrefomenis such (aposp. 262 = Plutarch, Ethical 329a-b).] In writing of the project included, Apart from the philosophical theses Of against nature of life, Of pathwn etc., and literary works: Of words, Of poiitikis ἀkroasews and five books Omirikwn problems – all, Apart from little snippets, lost.

The Zeno succeeded in Arcade kleanthis from Ace of Trwadas (330-232 e.g.). In Athens had come as poor Boxer, but enthused with the teachings of Zeno so that night to work in the orchards and the day studying. As head of the school of efilosofise gennaiotata: He remained faithful to his master's theories, He wrote numerous books to support and supplement, developed the Stoic theology and composed a technically and philosophically meaningful Hymn to Zeus, We saved. However, in the years of the stoical philosophy was challenged from many sides and the school may have been dissolved, unless the next scholarch of chanced, Chrysippus, be both dynamic and worthy.

Chrysippus the philosopher Chrysippus, son of Fast from the Hock, He was one of the most important of the Stoic school, alleged one of the founders of. He was born in Soloys or in Tarsus of Cilicia

ChRYSIPPOS (CA. 280-205 e.g.)
EI mi gar in Chrysippus, oyk if in Arcade.["If there was no Chrysippus, There would be neither the lodge. "] Diogenes Laërtius 7.183
Descended from the Soloys of Cilicia. Young came to Athens and initially studied at the Academy. Later joined the stwikismo and became, in troubled times, able and Savior of head Lodge. "Intelligent man and Curt […] tsakwthike with Zeno, but with Kleanthi. The latter often said that reaches to taught the doctrines; evidence will find alone» (Diogenes Laërtius 7.179).
Really, the dialectic comfort that had apochtisei in kgfai the syllogistikes Academy of skills helped him first to systemize the Stoic teaching and support on solid rational bases.
The tradition of returns over 700 theses, covering almost all fields of philosophy. So, No wonder when we learn that his books were highly casually, full replays, procrastination and quotations from other authors.

The shift toward the middle of the ancient Lodge took place with the Panaitio from Rhodes (CA. 185-109 e.g.). Before joining the Lodge, He had the mathitepsei States Panaitios, the worthy philologist of Pergamon (s.. 227). Lived in Rhodes, where was a priest of Poseidon, in Rome, where syntrofepse with the Scipio Emilianos, and in Athens, where the last twenty years of his life as head of Lodge attracted and taught numerous notable students. The philosophy of, less rigorous than its predecessors, accepted some of the suggestions of the Academy and of the promenade; and on ethics teaching was tailored to the ideals of (Romans) political and military leaders. The writings of Panaitioy have been lost; but Cicero's De officiis follows in many of his own making On thesis of duty.

Posidonius of Rhodes or Apameys was a Greek Stoic philosopher, polymath, astronomer, geographer, politician, historian and teacher born in Apamea, Syria. The thought the polymathestero man in the world for its time

POSEIDWNIOS (CA. 135-50 e.g.)
Posidonius of Apamea the ,Syria (PR. Seleucid Kingdom), He was disciple of Panaitioy. For many years he traveled in Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, the Spain, the Portugal, the Gaul and North Africa, until finally settled and taught in Rhodes, where watched for a bit of homework and recognized the value of first by Cicero (77 e.g.), later and Pompey (66 and 62 e.g.).[Feature that, When he wrote a separate Around Istorian Pompiion, Cicero sent him and a report of his own personal action; but hope to honor him and that the philosopher with a work is faltering.] The interesting, respectively and writings, the Poseidwnioy were not limited to ethics, the logic and other philosophical fields itself, but expanded and in theology, Cosmology, Astronomy, the fysiognwsia, Geography, the Ethnography and history. In the latter field he decided to continue the work of Polybius history (s.. 207) and wrote the Meta Polybion Istoriin in 56 books, covering the years from the 146 as the 88 e.g..
The breadth of interests and the anthropological erudition of Poseidwnioy helped him to develop a philosophical system of universal, fitting with the historic image of the era, where the Roman Empire possessed and fix everything. Single and tachtiko the universe of Poseidwnioy included the gods, people and the natural world, all in harmonious coexistence and cooperation, tied with what the Stoics called sympatheian.
Of the numerous works of Poseidwnioy not saved any. Only information we, Some quotations and references, showing his great influence on subsequent thinkers, Greeks and Romans.

The works of Poseidwnioy was not the only lost. Apart from the hymn to Zeus of Kleanthis, from the rich production of ancient and Middle Lodge any work we have saved. Strange, because indirect reports and information indicate that the Stoic teaching had great resonance in thinking not only of the Hellenistic age and the ages that followed.
The third philosophical direction developed in alexandrina years, the Skepsis, no organized in school with the literal meaning, but based on the oral teaching of Pyrrwna, built and was completed by his students.

The Pyrrho ileios was a Greek philosopher, founder of the school of skepticism

PYRRWN (CA. 360-270 e.g.)
Panti logw reason ἀntikeitai.["Every reason has (equivalent.) independent minds ".] Diogenes Laërtius 9.74
Born in Elis and upon delivery since the Megalexandro in his campaign as the Indies, where he met Gymnosofistwn and philosophy of the Magi. Certain is only that for many years he lived poor and honored in his homeland as a freelance teacher of philosophy.
The Pyrrho did not leave behind any textbook – naturally, We would say, having believed that there are no objective criteria of truth, that nothing is certain and that each reason applies just as well as the antithetos of, IE at all. All you can and must do is to think (i.e. to observe) the phenomena, remaining indifferent, unruffled and therefore happy.
Forerunners of skepticism[Skepticism is called in history of philosophy Pyrrwna theory and Skeptical (philosophers) the followers of. However, in modern language, the term is used more generally with skepticism the importance of ' doubt,' defiance ', even the "distrust" against every claim; and those who adhere to this position are called "skeptics".] can be considered everyone who occasionally questioned whether the very existence of truth or the ability of people to fix it, but the absolute epochi, i.e. the refusal of the wise to express any judgment, should be attributed to the teachings of Pyrrwna, where ap᾽ and adopted the Arcesilaus and the Karneadis of the Middle Academy (s.. 214).

The teaching of Pyrrwna solidified and recorded much later, the 1st b.c.. century, from the Cretan Ainesidimo who taught philosophy in Alexandria. The Pyrrwneiwn reasons oktw books I wrote were for the most part lost, but their content is pretty much known by other authors, modern as Cicero, or downstream such as Sextus the empirical (s.. 281).
In the chapter of alexandrine philosophy included three more authors, they preferred to filosofisoyn with satirical mood, and in verse:

The Timon of flious (CA. 320-230 e.g.) He was disciple of Pyrrwna. He wrote numerous works, prose and poetry, among them silloys satirists, where diakwmwdoyse the various philosophical systems and their representatives.

The Radius of the Megalopolis (CA. 290-220 e.g.), politician, legislator and cynical admirer of Diogenes, ithikoplastikoys Meliamboys wrote in Doric dialect, where love compliment when it comes good, but he blamed the wealth and the gods that don't divide properly.
A contemporary of Grandstand and disciple of shameless was the Menippus of Gadara of Syria, which in turn parodied the philosophical systems and philosophers. His works, where the nonfiction dianthizotan with lyrics, have lost, but the unmistakable effect at katopinoys Greeks and Romans satirical authors allows us to guess at the accuracy and their eyrimatikotita.

Greco-Roman era (31 BC-330 ad.)
Historical circumstances

The 30 e.g., with the incorporation of Egypt in their territory, the Romans essentially completed their possessive dash in East and West. With the exception of some regional areas, that and they don't take long to conquer, all the known world had in one way or another accepted Roman sovereignty.
Contemporary with the incorporation of Egypt, and important as historical fact, was the conversion of the peculiar Roman Republic in AutoCAD, with First Emperor Augustus, He ruled successfully from 29 e.g.. as the 14 a.d. – forty-three years. Followed in unbroken order more than fifty emperors, other good, other baddies, until at 11 May 330 a.d. Constantine the great inaugurated as capital of the Roman Empire the New Rome, later renamed Constantinople.
Terrible in war, the Romans were in peacetime symbibastikoi, almost high-minded towards the conquered, and often leave them, at least seemingly, to kybernioyntai with their own laws[Already the 194 e.g.. the Roman Governor Titus Kointios Flamininos, After winning in the second Macedonian war, had declared that leaves eleytheroys and ἀfroyroys and ἀforologitoys, chrwmenois tois patriois nomois, Corinthians, Fwkeis, Locri in, Eyboeas etc.. (Plutarch, Titus 10) – but the reality proved different. The same proclaimed the 66 a.d. and Nero for all Greeks, but a few years later the decision was cancelled by the Bespasiano.] – arrives not absorbed Roman interests and peithontan at Emperor's cheques, of the Senate and appointed their representatives.[Plutarch advised anyone who planned to deal with the policy says to himself: "Kyberniesai myself, and govern city subservient to anthypatoys, the Commissioners of the Emperor» (Politika commands 17).] Beneficial for vassals, individuals and States, was the exemption from taxation, While the highest reward for those who have shown practical commitment in Rome was to be awarded the title, and to recognize the rights of Roman citizens. The latter became more and more frequently as the years progressed, until the 212 a.d. be named, by edict of Caracalla, Roman citizens all free inhabitants of the Empire.
The relative leniency of the Romans no prevent the conquered areas to suffer badly from the conquerors, that whole isopedwnan States, katalisteyan artistic and other treasures and exploited their economic potential. Poor return on so many sufferings was for Greek regions respect and favor that showed some emperors towards Athens, Ephesus, Delphi, elefsis and other religious and cultural centers.
Remarkable strength outside of Rome did not exist in Greco-roman time, nor could thrive, as the Rome imposed by its size and only. And of course completely never stopped military operations in the region, Neither the internal conflicts, When the succession of emperors do not evolve smoothly, but uprisings were minimal and generally the Roman peace lasted centuries.
The overall political situation we can understand better by reading a sentence you wrote about mid 1st century. a.d. one for our anonymous author: "As maintaining the memory of freedom and employs the ypodoylo, the people want and shows strong resistance; but when evil prevails and people are not talking anymore how I make over them but how to live more easily with him, then the destruction is complete» (The chians, Letter 14.2). Don't forget, However, that already from the time of Stretched the peoples lived in large box monokratoriwn, and that the Roman domination, as unpleasant and if it was, constituted a guarantee of peace, law and order.


Athens has continued and in Greco-Roman years is a center of philosophical studies and its role strengthened, When the 176 a.d. the Emperor and philosopher Marcus Aurelius (s.. 280) He set up in Athens four philosophical seats, than one for Academy, the walk, the Arcade and epikoyreioys – not for skeptics, who doubted everything.
The various philosophical schools or directions continued, with their representatives to teach, to interpret, to complement and promote the thinking of the founder of the school and their successors. However, Since the last Hellenistic philosophers were beginning to lay aside their differences and to converge, phenomenon that now, in Greco-roman times, universally: followers of a school does not have hesitated to adopt ideas from other directions, and the philosophical thought tended to integrate in a single system, eclectic.
Don't forget that in Greco-Roman years next to philosophy was developing a new religion, Christianity, the apocalyptic teachings of not only solve ethical problems and dictate a virtuous lifestyle, but it still fell short of the metaphysical needs of believers and xanoige prospects for a better afterlife in the afterlife.
Compelled to compete, natural philosophy was to give this emphasis on the transcendental and mystical of faces. So, for a time blossomed again pythagorismos;, in the philosophical field dominated the Neoplatonism, they had assimilated crowd figures from other schools and was intensely metaphysical and mystical tendencies.

Station on the threshold of the Greco-Roman era was the publication of the works of Aristotle by Andronicus (s.. 174 NB. 156). As was only natural, the version, where for the first time the Aristotelian philosophy presented in full and as integrated system (that wasn't, s.. 175), gave the high school new life – and employment.

The aristotelikes treatises were concise and obscure as to content and language. So, in the decades that followed the version, a whole range of set-up philosophers studied the study, comment, to erminepsoyn and parafrasoyn the aristotelika projects, without their care would continue to remain unknown.
First Andronicos himself from Rhodes introduced in version one's own introduction and added the biography of Aristotle, a list of his works and some reviews. Followed the student of Hotepsekhemwy from Sidon, He commented on the Course, classes and Ἀnalytika formerly, the Xenarchos from Seleucia, Although peripatetic challenged basic aristotelikes posts, Nicholas of Damascus, We met him and as a historical (s.. 264) etc.. Their common trait is the tendency to introduce in Aristotelian philosophy, as interpreted, figures from academic and stoic theory.

Important cultural centre was from the Hellenistic period, and maintained in the Greco-roman era, and Alexandria. Εκεί, where the Jewish community was, We remind, the biggest after the Greek, held, end of 1st BC. and early 1st ad. century, a significant, prochristianiki, approach Judaism with Greek philosophy.
(P. ARChAIOGN/or Alexandria was ellinikotati and the guard of the Roman legion composed owned by Greek soldiers ,as with the legions in the East Mediterranean and was not simply a large Greek community )

Born in Alexandria from family who were financially independent, politically strong and linguistically hellenized, so the Friends do not know even the Hebrew and he is the theological and philosophical works in Koine Greek. All that we know about his life is that he visited Jerusalem and Rome, where the 40 a.d. defended as diplomatic dispatched the interests of the Jews of Alexandria.
The starting point has always been the old testament, like the knew from the Septuagint, and the attachment to the Jewish spiritual tradition it stood steadfast. However, He gave two of his works, in Ἀlexandron and in the welfare Of, the characteristics of Platonic interactive format and do not hesitate, interpreting the Judaic holy texts, to use Greek approaches, as in Laws Ierwn ἀlligoriai, and to adopt Greek, stwikes or other ideas, as on Of the spoydaion is always eleytheron.
Of the numerous works of, other, as the life Of Moses, survived intact; other, as some legends in the Pentateuch, in Armenian translation; other, as the Ἀpologia in favour Ioydaiwn, We are known only from fragments in their books parathesan younger Christian writers.

The Apollonius neopythagoreios Tyaneas was a Greek philosopher from Tyana of the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia minor

Apollonius of Tyana of Cilicia (1nd a.d. αι.) ap᾽ edge s᾽ edge travelled the Empire by unleashing the Pythagorean way of life: piety, prayer, the frugality, vegetarianism, sexual Continence k. t.. He did not have reason to believe that he was a crook, as the featured, always kakoglwssos, Lucian. But had not the supernatural gifts who would the followers of, When you argue that could talk to the animals, reject the gremlins, to resurrect dead and, prisoner, to solve the shackles of. His reputation was left alive and the 2nd a.d.. century the Empress Julia Domna commissioned in Flavio Filostrato to write Home in the Tyanea Ἀpollwnion (s.. 261), curriculum project where the historical data it was natural to have subsided ahead of the dominant legend.
From his own works the Teleytai or of thysiwn and Of pythagorikou of life is lost. But were 77 letters, among them some that may well have written it himself.
Apollonius was not the only one who preached with success the Pythagorean philosophy.
The mystical-religious dimensions of teaching of Pythagoras was to resonate in a society he sought metaphysical props. So, No wonder when in Greco-Roman years widely circulated, unknown when and by whom written, the epi Chrysa (quotations) of Pythagoras, or when some (neo)pythagoreanism,[Is it coincidence when the three greatest, the Moderatos of Gadara (1nd a.d. αι.), the Nicomachus of Jerash (11st/2nd a.d. αι.) and the Noyminios of the Apamea (2nd a.d. αι.), all came from Syria;] combining in their works the Pythagorean with platonic theory, paved roads to the neoplatwnismo.

The stoical philosophy represented the 1st a.d. century with a group of philosophers, all of whom, in one way or another, initiated in the fields of allegory. The Kornoytos from the Libyan Lepti interpreted the Greek theological system Jupiter by equating with the soul, IRA with air, Athena with wisdom etc. · the misnomer Kevitos Theban Table, certainly does not belong in Kebi socraticus (s.. 167) but in an about us anonymous philosopher who wanted, interpreting a patently fantastic, allegorical picture, recommend the Stoic road to bliss, where no one arrives with the pseydopaideian of music, the numeric, rhetoric, etc., but only with Temperance, the fortitude and the other moral virtues; in our hands arrived and Omirikai ἀlligoriai of Heraclitus from Pontos (;), where e.g.. It is argued that the arrows of Apollo at the beginning of the Iliad is not from the rays of the Sun, that cause epidemics and drought.


Apollonius, as a representative of the Pythagorean, trying to give content to the pneymatikotero corrupt polytheia era. And I do not understand some polytheists of today. Consider the mythology "work of poets" and abhorred the noticeable expression of divinity, but the powerful love of freedom was an innate tendency toward magic, the prophecy and thaymatoyrgia, the same – if you want- people of that era.
Apollonius Tyaneys had imposed a correct lifestyle: After a five-year silence imposed on himself, He began a series of tours, in conjunction with ascetic life, preaching abstinence from the bloody sacrifices, wine, bathrooms and erotic Orgies. Went to Ephesus, Pergamum, Troy, Lesvos, Evia, Piraeus (60 a.d. in celebration of the eleusinian), in Athens, at Thermopylae (where he met the Amfiktiones). Also visited the temples of Apollo Delphi Abwn, the divination Dodonis and Trofoniou, the Holy Amfiaraou and Muses, Olympia, Sparta, Crete, Rome and Spain.
Then the Apollonian Tyaneys returned again in Greece (the 68 a.d.), where he was initiated into the eleusinian mysteries. Went on Chios, Rhodes, Egypt, where he became acquainted with the Roman Emperor Bespasiano, but she complained to him about the Roman annexation of Achaea. After he fled to Cilicia, When he met the son of the Emperor Titus, and he continued his journey towards Syria and Phoenicia.
And here is worth to say something important: The vileness of the emperor Domitian and his marriage to the beautiful niece of Julia aroused the indignation of Apollonius, I didn't hesitate to go to Rome to denounce. WHAT,what IE did a contemporary of, I was listening to the name John the Baptist, When denounced the Herod, who did similar things with Irwdiada and her daughter Salome (Gospel of mark, Parlay Vi).
In the trial, that followed his arrest Fast of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus, He attended the emperor Domitian, but that stopped the trial and left the katigoro to flee from Rome.

This interesting oil painting 1874 is the work of N. B. Starr and depicts Apollonius.

The 93 e.g.. Apollonius attended at the Olympics, went to the Oracle of Trofoniou, He stayed two years in Achaia and the 95 He returned to Ephesus. The was the murder of Domitian and the rise of the Roman throne of his friend and philhellene Neroya.
It is a fact, that Apollonius died in deep giratia on Trajan, around 100 a.d. and efimizeto that all tours of giatreye sick, He turned away the wicked demons, did fortune telling, prophecies and that said did even "resurrections it is too much dead"..
Can, of course his salvation from the Roman court considered miracle, and the vision that saw the moment of the murder of Domitian and all that, in conjunction with the virtuous life, they had like result be honored posthumously as a hero or God even. Though, as we read, the neoplatonist philosopher Hierocles of Alexandria (5century a.d.) disciple of Plutarch, the featured more important than Jesus, causing the war of ecclesiastical history Eysebioy.
Apollonius, as a representative of the Pythagorean, trying to give content to the pneymatikotero corrupt polytheia era. And I do not understand some polytheists of today. Consider the mythology "work of poets" and abhorred the noticeable expression of divinity, but the powerful love of freedom was an innate tendency toward magic, the prophecy and thaymatoyrgia, the same – if you want- people of that era.
The life of the Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus Fast with many fantastic additions described by Moirageni and from the Filostrato, in order of Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. Apollonius (as a historical person) left behind some projects: Teletai or on sacrifices (quotations in Eysebio) and a bion Pythagoroy, that in turn has been a source for the biography of Pythagoras by Iamblichus wrote halkida (There quotes)· from the 77 Letters that saved us, could, However, Some are genuine. ANGELOS SAKKETOS

The Acquired Ierapolitis (from the Hierapolis of Phrygia) born in the middle of the 1st century of Christian chronologisews and originally was a slave of an imperial officer, of Epafroditoy, who released him when once settled permanently in Rome. The Epictetus studied stoic philosophy next to Moysonio Ruffo and then taught himself in Rome, designate one of the cruellest forms of Stwϊkismoy

Born a slave at Hierapolis of Phrygia, but had the good fortune to serve in Rome an extremely rich and educated apeleythero, the Epafrodito, that gave comfort to mathitepsei in stoic philosopher Moyswnio Ruffo[ We are known a whole line of Stoics and philosophers who taught with success in Rome: ARIUS Didymus, friend of Augustus, the Chaeremon, teacher of Nero, etc.. The stoical philosophy from the outset had great resonance in Roman spiritual cycles, where those years the represented the famous politician, poet and philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 b.c.-65 a.d.).] and later released him. Teaching anymore myself, the Acquired stayed in Rome as the year that the Domitian banished all philosophers (89 a.d.). Persecuted from Italy, He settled in Nicopolis of Epirus, where he continued to teach with great success until his death.
He did not write anything; but the student had known us historic Flavio Arriano (s.. 266), We diligently record verbatim, in the common, as were, his lessons (Of ἀtaraxias, How ferein dei tas diseases, Respect epikoyreioys and ἀkadimaϊkoys etc.), and published with the title Diatribai. Of the eight books of Diatribwn have saved the four, and a separate book, the Egcheiridion, where again Arrian had summarized the moral teaching of teacher. The philosophy of Epictetus was basically stoic, with elements of cynicism. Addressed to the average person, systinontas to fight his passions with the logikon and follow free reads command.

Has correctly observed that in Greco-Roman years the lodge had highlighted two extremely important philosophers: a slave, the Acquired, and an emperor, Marco Ayrilio, and, as was only natural, each of them spoke with his own way: the Epictetus was addressed in many, with rational arguments; Marcus Aurelius himself, with aphorisms.


MARKOS AYRILIOS (121-180 a.d.)
Endon skapte; the ἀgathou pigi of endon.[ "Inside (Sou) digging (to seek)· inside (Sou) is the source of the goods. "] Εἰς eayton 7.59
Marcus Aurelius had mathitepsei in the famous Roman orator and ritorodidaskalo Frontwna and Herod the Attic (s.. 257). Both the proorizan for orator, but eventually prevailed over its inclination towards philosophy. As emperor was unlucky: external enemies and internal rebels forced him to spend more than twenty years of power in warfare.
Εἰς eayton's work is a kind of diary where the philosopher-Emperor katagrafe with brief comments (e.g.. "those very ymnithikan already delivered to oblivion, and those who have long since disappeared moaning», 7.6), aforistikes crises (e.g.. • ἀdikwn eayton ἀdikei, eayton poiwn kakon, 9.4), Tips and categorical dictates to himself (e.g.. mi aIschynoy aided, 7.7).
Its philosophy derives a lot from Neptunium and Acquired and focuses on ethical behavior, recommending inner freedom from the passions, serenity, moderation, gentleness and tolerance – virtues that characterize and. Only Christians stood ategktos; perhaps because she saw how easily religion could them with moral teaching to substitute any practical philosophy.

As you would expect, the convergence of philosophical systems influenced the Academy, where philosophers – Eudoros (1ND BC/1st ad. αι.), Gaius (11st/2nd a.d. αι.), the Albinus (2nd a.d. αι.) etc.. – from the one adopted and incorporated in the Platonic theory pythagorikes, walking and stwikes ideas, of the other promoted to their posts the metaphysical and mystical elements of Platonism, preparing the conversion of the intensely theological neoplatwnismo. Last in series, the Celsus (2nd a.d. αι.) in his work Ἀlithis reason he put, make guesses because, with Christians.

The Sextus the Empirical (2nd half 2nd-early 3rd century m. CH.) He was a philosopher and physician, representative of scepticism in philosophy and empiricism in medicine, known mainly from the surviving books of, which are drawn between 180 and of the 200 m. X. By his own testimony shows that came from Greece and from Diogenes Laërtius him that he was a disciple of Herodotus's doctor and teacher of Tarsea Satoyrinoy. Likely considered his activity in Rome.[World Biographical Dictionary, Tom. 9(A), s.. 236, 1988] Named Rule because it followed the empirical (contrary to the doctrinal or theoretical) medical school, He had close relations with philosophical skepticism

Of his life we know only that he was a doctor, the empirical School of Irofiloy (s.. 230). But his works are preserved ((a)) Pyrrwneioi ypotypwseis, a summary of the views of Pyrrwna, founder of the school of considerations (s.. 221), and ((b)) Thoughtfully, consisting of five books Respect dogmatic, that is against all philosophers who believe in the rightness of their firm theory, and six books Respect mathematicians, that is against all of those who love learning, hold or teach a specific lesson: of grammatical, of ritorodidaskalwn, the astronomers, of natural, Mathematics with its current meaning, music etc.

Pyrrwneiees ypotypwseis-Alte Pinakothek- Munich

In all these the Sextus manages, applying with a lot of skill the beginning of Pyrrwna that panti logw reason ἀntikeitai, to prove not only that what they think they know is wrong, but also that their every attempt to discover something true and right from the outset is futile.
Aptly observed that "klonizontas [with their arguments] cognitive features of rationality, representatives of skepticism helped, unintentionally, to pave the way for mysticism. " ((A). Words)
Around 200 a.d. a wealthy citizen at Oinoanda in Lycia, Diogenes, fanatic follower of the philosophy of Epicurus (s.. 216), established after his death to built a huge inscription (over 40 meters length!) "for the good of the city and foreigners who visit». The inscription, I found and posted by riven archaeologists, It contained four own writings, quotations and letters – all in the context of epicurean philosophy.

A contemporary of Diogenes it must have been the peripatetic Aristoklis from Messina, Sicily, author of a work On philosophy, ap᾽ where we saved quotes.
His disciple was Alexander from Aphrodisias in Cilicia (22nd/3rd a.d. αι.), holder of the Chair of the promenade which had founded the Marcus Aurelius in Athens. It was of course an exaggeration, When the Byzantines called it Ἀristoteli the second; but when the feature kat᾽ exigitin exochin: the interpretive memo (in Metaphysics, in Detail, The Weather etc.) characterized by strict method and rare discernment.

The last philosophical movement of Greek Antiquity, the Neoplatonism, appeared and developed in the 3rd a.d. century. Typical was the continuation of the Platonism of the Academy, where they had in the meantime mastered crowd pythagorika, aristotelika, with resignation, etc.. items. Essentially however the Neoplatonism developed into a truly new movement: by ideokratia, with the devaluation of the sensible world view concepts such as the ultimate, mental catharsis k. t.. responded better than any other philosophical teachings on spiritual needs of the people of the late Greco-roman era that yearn for metaphysical redemption from the fact.
Pioneer of neoplatwnismoy is considered to be the Ammonius Saccas [The Saccas was given him because paranomi, poor in his youth, He carried bags for living.] by Alexandria (22nd/3rd a.d. αι.), born Christian but preferred to become a national and philosopher. The Ammonius left no written work and his teaching is unknown. But, as a teacher of platonic philosophy in Alexandria, major students, among them are the undeniable archigeti of neoplatwnismoy, Plotinus.

Flavius Philostratus

Flavius Philostratus (160/170 – 244/249 a.d.) is, together with the Diwna the Chrysostomos, the main representative of the Second Sophistic. Although he calls himself an Athenian was born in Lemnos and lived at the end of the 2nd century. and in the first half of the 3rd century. a.d. He went to Athens to study and later settled in Rome, the era that reigned the Septimius Severus, where he gained the favor of the Emperor's wife and mother of Caracalla Julia Domna. After the 217, so they found a tragic end the Julia Domna and Caracalla, He returned to Athens (in other versions he went to Tyros, where the given political rights) to act as a teacher of Sophistic.[World Biographical Dictionary, Tom, 9II s. 298, ekdotiki Athinon 1988] From the extant works of "body filostrateioy" attributed to Flavio Filostrato the following:
Lives of the Sophists in two books. In the first book listed twenty-six philosophers-sophists, with first the Protagoras and last Aeschines, While in the second thirty-three orators, from the authors of new direction as the same author.. Even in this book by Philostratus gave the name to this innovative movement: Second Sophists.
Heroic. Dialogue, that shows a lot of similarities in skopothesia and in character with the Bion Fast of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus.
Gymnastic. It belongs to the tradition of protreptikwn reasons that gives reliable information for matches, kinds of sports and proponisews methods.
Nero. Dialogue, as reminded very Lucian, Annotator was attributed to him. In the work the philosopher Moysiwnos kataggelei the ybrin of tyrannoy.
Letters. Has saved collection of seventy-three letters, written in ornate style, of which most are sex toys. The 73rd has as addressed to Julia Domna and an apology and defense of Sophistic.
Images, in two books. It belongs to the tradition of rhetorical ' expressions ' artworks. Describes sixty-five paintings that in terms of style is the finest work of Filostratoy.[J.s. Filostratoy, ΤΌΜΟΙ 7 REF #. 307-312, Ed. Cactus] Fast life of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus. His reputation has mostly Philostratus in eight books which were: The Apollwnion the Tyanea.[Constantine Cavafy Sages de prosiontwn ] National to use it as a counterweight to the spectacular spread of Christianity altered the image of this historic person (Fast of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus) adding narratives of Wonderland and presenting him as evil sorcerer in a way that caused the reaction of Lucian with Alexandron or Pseydomantin.[Lucian, Alexander or Pseydomantis]

Plotinus (considered to be the head ) It was an important philosopher of the late Antiquity and founder of the neoplatonic School of philosophy

PLWTINOS (205-270 a.d.)
He was born in Lykopoli of Egypt and studied in Alexandria, where twenty-eight years old he met Ammonium Sakka, enthused with his teachings and stayed close to eleven years. Then, to meet the Persian and Indian philosophy, He followed the Emperor Gordiano III in his campaign in Mesopotamia; quickly though the Gordian was killed and Plotinus traveled, first in Antioch, then in Rome, where he settled and stayed in teaching over the last twenty-five years of his life.
The ascetic personality and teaching impressed the Romans; the reputation for wisdom and righteousness of spread, and there were few those who begged him to resolve their differences or manage as adoptive father fortunes had been orphaned children.
His students were many and worthy, but again not surprised to learn that attempted, but failed, to shape his teachings in standard socraticus dialogue, because discussions were complete ἀtaxias and chatter pollis (Life 3.37).
Following his teacher the ammonium and Socrates, Plotinus did not give importance to the written word. Slowly and with difficulty his students convinced him to write.
So, in the last years of his life, Plotinus record 54 funds from the philosophy of. The surrendered to his disciples, and from these the Porphyry (s.. 284) the tachtopoiise in six groups of nine funds, Depending on their theme, and the published entitled Enneades.

Plotinus or Emperor Galliinos; It is not certain what exactly portrayed in the Centre of the terrain known as the Sarcophagus of Plotinus ' particular important position of Plotinus and the popularity in Roman society still looks from the respect they had to face the Emperor Galliinos and his wife Salwnina. Indeed, Plotinus, wanting to capitalize on their friendship, asked to build a city of philosophers in Campania, in which I followed the laws of Plato and I had the name Platwnopolis. He intended to retire there along with friends and disciples of. But when Porfyrio some of the courtiers of the Emperor the handmade and design barriers not held. Even before his death Plotinus left some memorable and enigmatic words to his disciples saying: "Try to anagete God within you in divine inherent in More». He died in 270 a.d. having lived through the 66 of years. Did not reveal to anyone exactly when she was born, nor on the day of his birthday, because they don't want anyone to make sacrifices or meals for his birthday, Although the traditional birthday of Plato and Socrates was himself a meal and sacrifices to his companions [It was said that Plotinus maybe refused to reveal his birthday and place of origin not because scorned such issues, but because she was afraid that the fanerwnontas could exert influence over several competitors through magic.].

Plotinus wrote as if he was speaking: the language is mixed, the writing of abnormal, the style of atsalo and terminology are often invented by him; par᾽ all, Why has vibrancy and read delightfully, If it wasn't the meanings so complex and abstract.
Plotinus does not ever claimed that brought something new to philosophy. Instead, insisted on saying that another did not by interpreting its predecessors, Plato and Plato's. Properly; but new it was just the interpretation given to the Platonic theory, the composition of accumulated academic knowledge, the way that systematized the diffuse material – the consolidation of Platonism, as the projected mesmerizing his audience. Typical teaching of Platonic en, that not only corresponded with anymore the virtue and beauty, but it was the source of all beings.
With this almost deified, independent and absolute en Plotinus taught that people could, with exercise and a secret Rapture, unite – something that he, If you believe the Porfyrio, the managed four times.

From the disciples of Plotinus stood out ((a)) Eystochios doctor of Alexandria, who did the latest hours and had this issue, before the Porfyrio, the works of the master, and ((b)) the Amelios from Etruria, author of a series of remarkable philosophical writings but lost. Both the work was overshadowed by the editorial and interpretive prosperity of another student, of Porfyrioy.

PORFYRIOS (234-301/4 a.d.)
Porphyry was Syros from the Tyros. Mathitepse first in the Athenian Academy, then for five years in the school of Plotinus in Rome. Then settled for a time in Sicily; but turned to Rome after the death of his master to succeed in students.
Porphyry edited, as we have seen, the version of the Enneadwn Plotinus; but he wrote many. From the 65 projects that we know that he had authored and survived despite the nine, among them the precious life Of Plotinus and the class of this book, and another biography, the Pythagoroy life.
From the rest Of conditionality of ἐν Nymfwn τῶν ἄntroy Odysseia, where the well-known cave of Ithaca (n 102-12) interpreted allegorically as a symbol of the sensible world in ż ··· as Ierw psychai aI megistw diatriboysin (12), and Respect Markellan, his wife, Advisory Letter, where his, ἀlitheia, erws and elpis viewed as four stoicheia which help to approach the man God. From lost works let us remember only Against Christianwn, where the philosopher challenged the biblical Genesis, the enanthrwpisi of Christ and the second coming.
The Porfyrio occupied him more than any other man's attempt to secure the salvation of his soul, by overcoming the mind and the will and passions demons (!) They inhabit. However, his thinking was not particularly original; and he put more importance on correct understanding, commenting and spreading the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus, where the contribution of stood true important.

From the Platonism in neoplatwnismo, and by Plotinus in Porfyrio, the academic theory more and more away from the traditional philosophical reflections, increasingly sought and found answers to theological issues rather than philosophically. The same trend continued with the third important representative of neoplatwnismoy, Iamblichus.

The Iamblichus

IAMVLICHOS (CA. 250-325 a.d.)
The Iamblichus was Syros, as porphyry, He taught philosophy in Rome, but of course that didn't stop student and teacher to clash later in many. Deeply religious and mystical nature, the Iamblichus believed and that the existence of demons; while the Porphyry clutching distances from the divination, the magic and any attempt to influence of gods with arcane rituals and magganeies, the Iamblichus judged necessary for the philosopher to approach, with the intercession of demons, the divine knowledge.
As you would expect, the torque of mysticism and Theosophy led him to study in depth the pythagorismo and want to spread. By the complex task of Pythagorean doctrines Synagwgi saved the life Of the pythagorikou, the Reason protreptikos filosofian respect, the Theologoymena of ἀrithmitikis etc..
Yet, as genuine neoplatonist, the Iamblichus omitted not to comment on some works of Aristotle and of Plato, believing that the latter spoke with aInigmata (hints) and proposing new ways of interpretation.

Ta biographical information for Iamblichus, particularly for the years of his youth, are scarce. The offspring of the rich and aristocratic family, born around 250 m. X. in Chalkida of Hollow Syria. It is said that his family was descended from Kings priests of emesas (today's Homs), City famous for the Temple of the Sun God syrofoinikikoy Iliogabaloy. Proud of his national origin, refused to accept Greek or Latin name, According to the custom of the time, and kept the Syrian-mlikoy, "God rules". Originally studied the neoplatwnismo close to the trekking Anatolio, one of the first students of the Porfyrioy and then next to the Porfyrio, the leading disciple of Plotinus, probably in Rome, which succeeded to the position of Heir of the Neo-platonic School. Earlier, however, had founded his own school in Syria, where his fame attracted a crowd of students from the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire.

It is not known when or how exactly he died Iamblichus, probably around 330, shortly after the First Ecumenical Council and shortly before Christianity becomes the official religion of the Eastern Roman Empire. From the numerous students of the the Apameys and Sopater Aedesius, who succeeded at the Syrian School, and his disciple Aidesioy, Maximus of Ephesus, teacher of Emperor Julian. The most conspicuous but holdover of Iamblichoy is the Proclus, Successor of the Athenian School. Deeply influenced by the teachings of Iamblichoy is and the works of so-called "pseudo-Dionysios" exerted great influence on medieval Christian thought.

From the "Chaldean Theology» of Iamblichoy rescued six books: The life of Pythagoras, The Hortatory in Philosophy, On the common mathematical, On Nikomachou Numerical Gerasinoy Introduction, The Theologoymena of arithmetic and On the Egyptian Mysteries. Also, extensive excerpts from the "soul", from the letters to Makedonio and Swpatro "On Eimarmenis" and Dexippo and Swpatro "On Dialectic", they are saved in the "Anthology" of Stobaioy.

The approach of philosophy with religion expresses a movement, the Hermeticism, that gi᾽ him wondering if was philosophical system with religious overtones or, more correctly, ecstatic (monotheistic!) religion on philosophical grounds. Being placed in alexandrina years, the edge of the Greco-roman era. In Greek literature is represented by Ermin trismegiston,[Ermis trismegistos was the Greek name for the Egyptian God Thoth] a body from a variety of reasons where inside them coexist compatible or contradictory evidence from many religions. First and most important reason for the Poimandris («poimin ἀndrwn»), where the namesake God-Nous reveals secret truths about the creation of the world.



Main source of Fanis Kakridis
Educational Research Center & Institute Of Modern Greek Studies

World Biographical Dictionary, ekdotiki Athinon 1988
Diogenes Laërtius, Lives filosofw | The navel of the Earth

The space required as no one else at the thought of man

The navel of the Earth

At the beginning of the amazing Gorge in Stone of Jordan stands opposite a short inscription and a design etched into the rock. It is a tribute of a Greek soldier, a reference to the "Hub of the Earth", Delphi, that the Greeks were taking with them where they were going. And I had with me an admirable indication, the essay by George Seferis for Delphi. When I opened the ' trials ', they opened immediately and my wings, and like the mythical Eagles left Zeus to fly from the two ends of the world, among the Fedriades Stones: «(…) The myth may mean that the dark forces is the leaven of light· that the more intense, the more deep is the light when the master. And ponders that if Delphi landscape vibrates from such internal fibrillation, is why there is no maybe corner on our land to fermentation so much of the boundary between forces and by the absolute light». Indeed,, the landscape of Delphi is one of the most shocking in the world. The many confess that they have experienced. Because the Delfoiden is only a Museum of ancient Greek art and history, It is not only an amazing landscape light radiating irritates the eyes. It is a landscape that speaks to the mind and the soul to great things, for the power of God of harmony, of light and divination, talking about big ideas, such as Amfiktionies. The General landscape of Delphi, the monuments, the Museum with the strict Charioteer, the sources, the stones, all these do not give just the impression of a great archaeological site, but a landscape that matters as the visitor and the attitude that keeps far.

Heavenly scenery and Delphi ideology
Going up the paving that stepped on so and so many people voting as pilgrims for thousands of years now, leave left the Treasure of Athens (It was built with the spoils of the victorious battle of Marathon in 490 e.g.)· and as we move towards the first clearing of landscape, where most visitors stop to be photographed in a akoympismenoi column. Then they are coming back to mind the words of the journalist and art critic of the British "Guardian" Jonathan Jones· one of the pilgrims who say:

"Delphi, in Greece, have a strong claim to be considered the most wonderful landscape on Earth. Re’ the last brief visit there I have inculcated in the mind as the archetype of all classical paintings of the landscape painting· the dreamy location that somehow the Turner, Claude and Poussin tried to reflect in their works. In my memory, the crystalline blue sky of Delphi illuminates the marbles and silvers the leaves of liodentrwn, making it to spinthiroboloyn more strongly than even the brightest Turner projects. The landscape that looks like it was born to heaven, is essential. The original colours and the perfect harmony of culture and nature the lift in the fictional world of the gods. Delphi Greek mythology becomes reality ".

And all climb to the Temple of Apollo, the columns whose – those who still remain standing across the stormy centuries – look like pawns on the chessboard of human thought. One could write "know thyself" (has self-awareness), another "Zero Agan» (don't do anything excessive), and another "Metron" track, others can be expressed using other quotes of ancient wisdom. The dimensions of the temple are impressive, but the weight of. The xaplwmenes on Earth ancient stones rescue a slow music experience. The first contact of people become with mother earth through the fumes of some underground water current that went out on the surface by a crack of land. People came to rest their head on Earth, was getting to sleep and the great mother talked them into their dreams: "First I praise than’ the gods in my deisi/prwtomantissa Earth· (…)"says Aeschylus at «Eymenides».
But although the bouts of land is imposing, the light is pantocrator. So was the God of light and harmony Apollo, dominant here. Killed the Python, the son of the great mother, and he was installed over the sacred earth crack, to disclose that the coming events to mortals through Pythias and priests of.

So the whole story of Greece passed from here, from the tripods, next to crack that sat the Pythia sucking Bay leaves, and by the priest who was recording the inarticulate cries of to translate together with other priests in Oracle. From the place we would elect people of the archaic era to erect their colony in foreign land, until the major events of the classical era and the years of the great Macedonian Kings.

All political developments, the historical episodes, the ideology of Greece, were reflected there in edifices, in sculptures, in statues dedicated the Greek cities with every opportunity to God who not only knew of the coming events, but the reveal and the mortals, which made him the most respected AP’ all. Above it was the theater that was built by the Kings of the Hellenistic Kingdom of Pergamum, the 2nd century. e.g., to perform musical and theatrical games. This compendium of Greek culture that symbolize the Delphi had the "alafroiskiwto" mind of the fine Angelos Sikelianos (and the symparastatria of Eve Palmer), When tried at the beginning of the previous century to xanathymisoyn the Delphi concept with feasts in this theater:

"In the mind of young Greek,
where is bathed in new
Pink light deep,
played some imitation
the fighting aniboy God,
the new Apollo,
When he killed the Python ...»

Man of Delphi, as calls him George Seferis, It was somewhere here, near the stadium, the House of. Met and here the two poets and perhaps here you passed first time from the mind of Seferis such ideas: "As the years go by, and with the help of our poets begin and how deeply we can and go echoes of our tradition, slowly though what are the things that distinguish us in the world we live in» ...

Place separate from the other world
It is impossible to let down the ' Tests ' and get away from the description of George Seferis in Delphi, coming from the sea, from ITEA:

«More at Delphi, After you pass the village, and to bring the road in front of the mosque, you got the feeling that savvy in’ a place separated from the other world. It is an amphitheater nestled on the first rungs of Parnassus. In the East and North, the close the Fedriades: the Yampeia that goes down like the prow of a large boat and cut the langádhia· North Bay where leaning almost stage. In the West the Rocky wall of AI-Lia, and beyond the mountains of Locris, the Gkiona, where do you see the Sun reigns. If you get back the eyes in the South, you have before you the robust lines of Kirfis and, her legs, the ravine of Pleistoy. The Pleistos is dry in summer· see Sun refines the dry riverbed, but a stream of olive Gush, you'd, and fills the whole plain of Amfissas, as the shore, where prwtoblepei the Navigator. Closer, It's glossy stones of the ruins of Marmarias, where the three pillars of the dome. I was going to forget the Castalia. However the water has a scent of thyme ".

Why we feel here such a vibration;
"I ponder these big waves deep through time, that shift the meanings of words. L. x. the meaning of the word Oracle, where has gone in our time; The word became an archaeological object. Agree. Yet the meaning of; Did you got this or that imperceptibly scientific or mathematical form; Who knows. However what one feels is that, in the background of today's reflection, something must be left by those old katalymenes expressions. Otherwise, How could we feel here such a vibration;»

Giorgos Seferis, "Delphi", in "Testing" ((B)’ volume, Ikaros publications)

Strangers, hosting, tour guides ...

The concept of travelers and xenias the existed from very old in this place, as the sanctuary and Oracle brought people from every corner of the Magna Graecia and by foreign still. There has always been a great stream of travelers, unending centuries. Already since the time of Plutarch were tour guides that xenagoysan visitors to the shrine and sightseeing around this. And now, the tour guides with umbrellas in summer visitors tour the archaeological site, but the ties a common faith, but everyone carries his personal legend, like his personal travel items.

Greece – Global Mitrida Culture | Prophet Daniel and the old testament. Enigmatic reference to Alexander

CHAPTER 8- The second vision of Daniel: The duel of Rams and goat. The importance of vision.

The second vision of Daniel- The duel of Rams and goat.

Dan. 8,1 During the third year of the reign of King Balthasar, Daniel paroysiasthi in me a vision, After the vision, which had previously idei.

Dan. 8,2 Eyriskomin at Susa at a ochyron pyrgon, that was in place Ailam. There I saw a vision. I saw IE, that eyriskomin near the river Oybal.




The ἀrchaiotero, on the 2.500 e.g., Parliament in the world, is it ἀnakalyfthike by ystera ekeino to systimatikes and polyeteis ἀnaskafes of Italikis Of Ἀrchaiologikis in Poliochni, Lemnos ........... However, the Parliament of Poliochne, as is known, ἀpotelese public building aggregations of inhabitants and precursor of the imoy Ekklisias of Ki ochi τῶν simerinwn Parliaments. The construction, are kept in elegant dome, accompanied by information on the part of the Istoriko-canéda simantikou ἀrchaiologikou area.

The eforos Klasikwn Ἀrchaiotitwn Nomou Lesbos and Chairman of Ellinwn τῶν Ἀglaia Enwsis Archeologists Ἀrchontidoy ἀnefere home simantikwtera historical stoicheia, it connected with the ἀrchaioteri wrganwmeni city of Eyrwpis, the Poliochni, "The Poliochne is the best example of that period called" Trwikos and Politismos ' becomes more simantiki ἀkoma, ochi is a wrganwmeni why only city with streets, public areas, with exairetikes Idiwtikes oIkies, with dioikitika and exairetes housing centers, the ἀpodidontai and opoies in ἀrchigoys in ἀrchigo of Poliochne, But why in this the city already from the 3000 e.g.. and until the 1600 e.g.. leitoyrgei ὁ ἀrchaioteros chwros dialogue in World. Edw was born in semen of dialogue, the sperm are today onomazoyme Republic emeis.»
itan chwros when residents of the dialegontan between the, syzitwntas home city of public issues. Synepws itan not Parliament (Conference ἀntiproswpwn), but of the imoy Ekklisia (olwn Congress of politwn).

Poliochni is an archaeological site on the eastern shore of Lemnos, near kaminia, built at the dawn of the Neolithic period to the Aegean, the 4th or 5th Millennium BC. Located directly opposite Troy but Troy will be built one thousand years later, When I anymore poliochni will have evolved into an urban settlement with 1.500 residents with rectangular stone houses, protective wall, squares, Wells, streets, public buildings and Parliament.
Poliochni came to light by the excavations of the Italian archaeological School of Athens, headed by then Director of Della Seta (Della Seta) the 1930 and key aide of excavator Bernabo Brea. Along with Troy, located on opposite coasts, is the most famous Acropolis of the 3rd millennium b.c.. throughout the Northern Aegean.
Surrounded by walls, you have commanding form only on the West side, where was greater by the need to protect the Foundation from erosion of nearby river. It seems indeed that poliochni, at least at the beginning, We do not need military defence. The city flourished a Pacific population thousand inhabitants, They delved into during the day with agriculture and animal husbandry, While the evening return to settlement, thing they do even today farmers of the region. This habit must have been created between them a form of rudimentary social organization, the wording, i.e., common rules have to be respected in the city, but out of this, the common fields or to those who may have been granted by the community to each family nucleus.
The digging of wells, built with investment, in depth reached over 9 measures, the construction and maintenance of the walls, roads and pipelines to collect the rainwater, flooring squares where meet residents to spend their free time or on the occasion of feasts, It was all measures taken, demanded a total agreement and a place where they could discuss and make decisions. For this purpose built in Poliochni called Deputies.
Thanks to the processing and handling of metals poliochni, built just across the Strait of the Hellespont, He was the oldest urban center, in Europe's first commercial port. Was the heart of the region of b. Aegean.
The ruins of Poliochne demonstrate that in b.. Aegean developed a prehistoric culture completely autonomous from them till now known (Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean).
The Bouleuterion
Right after the main entrance, on the Western side of the wall that surrounds the city, found a great Chamber with its stone benches along its entire length and pitch of speech in the Center, that is probably the strongest indication that there was a democratic organization of society then. Prof. Santo Tine (Santo Tine) who is the Director of excavations in Poliochne writes:
"Named deputies immediately based on the example of buildings of the classical era that had those levels at which, Unlike the theaters and auditoriums, could take place a limited number of persons: the representatives of the community of citizens. "
The Parliament of Poliochne except that precedes almost 2000 years from their counterparts of the classical era, It also represents the oldest testimony in Europe and in the world, a construction suitable to accommodate people who had been called to discuss the problems of the whole and to determine the common cultural and religious norms. In "this way can be considered the forerunner of the House of our time.
The drainage of the yellow period and in depth public well
The Mansion
The mansion 605 built around 2000 e.g.. He sees in the central square and was the home of the richest and most powerful in relation to all other common citizens who continued to reside in houses very simple and with limited articulation. The Parliament had lost its original function anymore so that the East benches had disappeared with the construction of a wall. These are all signs that make clear the fact that democratic power in Poliochni was replaced by an authoritarian.
The gold treasure of Poliochni at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
The treasure of Poliochne
Inter alia in Poliochni found a treasure of gold jewelry, that is an exquisite sample of advanced and power accumulation goldsmiths and wealth on the island. The thesaurus is very similar to the famous "Priam's Treasure" found in Troy the Schliemann and looks that made from the same workshop. Today the treasure of Poliochne is at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens the end of town after successive seismic disasters will come 400 years before the destruction of Troy of Priam, around 1600 e.g..
The main Barn of the blue period
The periods of the city
Poliochni dubbed "eptapolis" why anaskaftikan seven consecutive cities in seven successive layers. Each is more advanced technologically than the previous and it appears mainly in the manufacture of vessels. That is why the Brea Bernabo named according to their color, betrayed and their perfection: Black, Kyani, Green, Red, Yellow, Brown (or Gray) and Violet.
Some of them correspond to periods of civilization of Troy. Than,What seems, the two adjacent cultures had little to do and parallel evolution. Though, the first period of Poliochne has no counterpart in Troy, but it is Premier of this. And as they evolve both poliochni remains increasingly thriving and richer than modern of Troy.

Poliochni I (Black 3500-3200 e.g.)
Black (or Black) period of Poliochne, the prehistoric town discovered in Eastern Lemnos, near kaminia, dubbed the first phase of the city, the proastiki, corresponding to the period 3500-3200 e.g.. According to the dating of the Italian archaeological School of Athens. proastiki phase of Poliochne is long and includes many layers. Farmers and ranchers inhabitants live in large oval or circular huts as diameter and 7 m., which were reconstructed many times on stone foundations. Their settlement was located in the middle of a hill and had an area of about 5 acres.
Residents construct vessels darkening, from which derives the name of the, decorated with fine lines, Recalling as well. Not even aware of the copper. Their tools are stone and bone and are quite sophisticated. We are at the last Neolithic period, shortly before the invasion of new technology of metals.
In addition to the settlement, residents there and in the surrounding rural region, as can be seen from three ftwchikoys tombs found 1930-31 under Avenue or Holy Trinity, close to Poliochni. Chronologically belong on the verge between black and blue period. Interestingly enough, there were found fragments of white marble figurines kykladikwn, something that indicates early contacts with the South Aegean before the creation of Poliochne.
The same period in the rest of Lemnos human activity has been detected only in Myrina and is of a similar cultural level. Troy still no. In the area of Trwadas there is only one Neolithic village in present-day Kum Tepe.
Poliochni II (Kyani 3200-2700 e.g.)
The Blue period of Poliochne, the prehistoric town discovered in Eastern Lemnos, near kaminia, It is the second phase of the city and is the first season that the townspeople know copper. Divided into two subperiods: the archaic (3200-3000 e.g.) and the Advanced (3000-2700 e.g.), According to the dating of the Italian archaeological School of Athens.
H knowledge of copper helped in the rapid development of the city. It is not excluded that Troy was created from the need of peoples of Asia minor to have a port for communicating with the peoples of the Aegean and Thrace, but with Poliochni, that was the intermediate station of the Thracians and of honor Aegean during their outings to the Black Sea.
Quickly from the small village with oval Kalyvia comes in an advanced state of Azure Poliochne. She initially has arched and later rectangular houses and is fortified with a whopping wall stairs both by land and by sea. This means that the rich residents feared enemy attacks.
The city is constantly expanding inland, westward. Apply the "linear" urban system, IE built construction islets (districts) unequal size. This period formed the two districts of Metalworkers, which will be maintained as the yellow period.
The city's population reaches 800 residents. Built new, most spacious wall, to cover the new districts. What we feared its inhabitants; The locals inland or external Limnioys Raiders-pirates; Rather both. Maybe some oppression to the rural population of the island, not yet possessed the knowledge of copper, to create reactions at times.
The same period in Lemnos there are a large number of settlements, over 15, the strongest of which were on Koukonesi and Myrina. Certainly among them will have been periods of peace but also periods of intense competition. Therefore the existence of defensive wall is fully justified. A fire, which destroyed a part of the city in the middle of the period (around 3000 e.g.), perhaps due to some sort of RAID.
Advanced stage (3000-2700 e.g.)
However after the fire the city life evolves dramatically, so the blue period divided into archaic and sophisticated. Impression make great public buildings, the Barn and the House of Parliament, manufactured in the last phase of the blue period, the most advanced.
This is a pioneering public constructions, apparently shared, leading thinking in forms of democratic political organization. To make the bold assumption that the fire that destroyed the archaic Kyani Poliochni came from some revolt, the result of which was to acquire more ' democratic ' face in the next phase; Unfortunately there is no evidence to substantiate this view.
The city has gained bronze machining workshops, to which manufactured mostly nails (needles), hooks and chisels. At the same time kept and traditional stone, bone and pottery tools, which could not yet be replace. From these we learn that wove and egnethan wool (found sfontylia and bobs), katergazontan wood (found hammers, stabbing, knives, hinges, saws, razors etc.), stored and processed foods before the Cook (found flails, mortars, ovens and clay vessels of various types: pitchers, boiling pans, jugs, mugs, froytieres etc.), cultivated cereals (found sickles from Flint). The clay still coined by hand, since they were unaware of the wheel. The end of the Cyan Poliochne was steep, After a flood destroyed the city.
Proportions of this period of Poliochne found with Troy j, hot Lesbos, Emporio of Chios, with settlements in Thessaly and Viotia. Therefore, There was some form of contact between the residents of the two shores of the Aegean.
Certainly poliochni had a good intermediate position in this maritime communication, which certainly exploit. Later myths (e.g.. the argonautic expedition) show that memories of the Greeks were elements of communication.
The rapid development of the town shows great commercial activity and apparently shipping.
Among the buildings found in Poliochni blue there is a period which was characterized as a Bouleuterion. According to Professor and researcher of the Aegean Christo Douma, There was the first and oldest Parliament in Europe.
The Xr. Doumas argued that residents of Poliochne had developed advanced forms of social organisation which may qualify as the earliest forms of democracy. Specifically distinguished two classes of inhabitants in the city. Farmers-farmers and craftspeople-traders. The latter can be divided into four "guilds": Metalworkers, the builders (carpenters), Mariners (merchants) and keramoyrgoys (potters).
The class of artisans had however more economic and therefore political power, but never managed a Guild to dominate on the other. So were forced to find forms of cooperation such, that only democracy offers. The existence of a building, which was a capacity 50 about people and that only as a place of Assembly can be classified, confirms the above thoughts. Therefore, is not overwhelming the rating of this building as a Bouleuterion.
So, the Republic was born in Poliochne; Archaeological clues lead effortlessly in this conclusion. Though it may not be assertive in this issue, It is true that the oldest building which could be characterized as a Bouleuterion was built there, located on the seafront of Poliochne, before 4.500 years.
Poliochni III (Green 2700-2600 e.g.)
The Green Poliochni evolved into big city. It has an area of 13-15 acres and a population of around 1300 residents. The residences of consisted of two or more rooms and were relatively uniform. Metallurgists dwelled in a separate quarter. new wall Built in the West to accommodate new homes, which means that the population of the city rose, perhaps from new residents. Though, the technique shows signs of decline, While there is a large amount of pottery imported from mainland Greece. An earthquake halted development of little town. Moreover, this period did not last more than a century. Feature is that the Parliament changes using this period and a part is covered by a newer building. The ' democratic ' period seems to be coming to an end.
Poliochni IV (Red 2600-2400 e.g.) contemporary of Troy I
During this period the city expanded across the Western side of the Hill, sample of financial soundness of its inhabitants. As it expands and the wall, boosted with semicircular bastions. The technique of construction improved, but the aesthetic began to decay, After the well-being of their residents permits to import, Despite making utensils. The decoration of ceramics is simplest and most massive production. There is a more pronounced influence of prwtoelladikwn cultural centers and is an established contact with Crete, the Cyclades, Boeotia and Thessaly.
The copper processing industry has improved, having found bronze knives, chisels, nails with head, hooks and mainly molds manufacturing tools with the groundbreaking method of molten wax. For the first time found stone ynia from plow, which means that systematically worked the land.
Trade becomes more organized anymore, as evidenced by clay and bronze seals with which mark the goods. Also, There are weights of Hematite, by weighing the goods. The weights are imported from Asia minor and the Aegean Sea. This means that standard weights were and there were obviously and local stone striving copies.
The existence of imported and pilot stations, indicates that as early as the 3rd millennium b.c.. He had seen the need for a common metric system among the various cities, to facilitate transactions. Or that traders of Poliochne ought to know the metrics of other cities which had trade.
During this period the society of the city seems to have changed the Organization and created economic classes. The Parliament is now in disuse, While the position of almost uniform houses of earlier periods are getting large buildings, mansions, led by the so called "Mansions", which either belong to rulers of the city or have a public character, because xanakataskeyazontai later. Also, There are many weapons, We reveal a political society.
The Red Poliochni was devastated by fire twice. The second fact marks the end of this season and the start of the next, the so-called Yellow.
Poliochni V (Yellow 2400-2100 e.g.) contemporary of Troy II
The Yellow Poliochni is most flourishing period in the history of this city. Corresponds to the also very developed Troy II-III. The two cities have identical alliloepireazomenoys cultures, but the technique of Poliochne is more advanced.
Tranotero example of the relationship between the two cities is the gold treasure of Poliochne, that is proportional to the treasure of Priam, discovered by Schliemann in Troy. The jewels have lots of carvings of fine craftsmanship, evoke the austerity of archaic Greek style but also have local influences. Pins, the earrings, the rings, the bracelets, necklaces and other elaborate jewelry show that has not been detached from Poliochni others aigaiopelagitikoys cultures but a quirky piece of the, a variation.
But there are other common between Poliochne and prwtoelladikwn settlements, They suggest that the accepted poliochni effect of Asia minor populations, Use this knowledge, that coupled with its geographic position gave her wealth and power, But while its inhabitants have maintained traditional Aegean culturally information. This shows omogenon with of the Greek element.
Aside from the simplicity of decoration this is shown by the fact that no temples while little devotional items (around 20 bone figurines). This is not random. The Greeks in the Aegean had other religious ideas. One temple or shrine is not found in Greece in this period. In contrast to Eastern Nations have already appeared the first Holy. Also, Perhaps it is no coincidence, that has never been the necropolis of Poliochne. The "prwtoelladika" cemeteries are also poorly. Only two tefrodoches with ashes fallen found, sample that may burn their dead.
The yellow period new pottery techniques arrived in town from the Greek culture centers. Poliochni is widening and other and occupies an area of almost two hectares. Efforts are being made to social organization. Created public spaces, residency, paved roads, squares, etc.. The wide streets there are large houses with auxiliary spaces, While smaller alleys, sample social inequalities.
Built public wells, pipelines of water supply and drainage system (small sewer).
The city's population is currently estimated at 600-800 residents. Market exists around the main paved road, which apparently come as the Inland Limnioi, and foreign merchants from the sea.
The pottery has been improved. Used a new mixture of clay and blood vessels are better. To build them using the revolutionary technique of wheel. Distinguished two classes of vessels: the daily, that is simpler and more durable and official, that is thinner, more brittle and more elaborately decorated. Feature is the famous amfikypello depas, stating later Homer.
General, the pots are very different from the older. Manufactured colanders, kitchen sinks (boiling pans with hydrant), large jars with a variety of decorative items and with various types of handles. Also, Bronze spearheads, hooks, nails etc. Still used and some bone tools, like needles, knives etc.. which means that, Despite the long-term use of copper for 600 and now years, some objects are still irreplaceable.
The thriving town had a tragic end. Around 2100 was flattened by a massive earthquake. The destruction was so terrible, so the city was abandoned by its inhabitants, who did not come back nor to collect valuable objects, left in ruins, among the gold jewelry. At least two residents have been victims of this earthquake, After kataplakwmenoi found from the ruins of a mansion, near the exit.
After this disaster the Poliochne never again will gain its former glory. Most inhabitants probably moved to Koukonesi, who knows a particular peak during the next period, the so-called Brown.
Poliochni VI (Brown 2100-1700 e.g.) modern Troy V
At the end of the yellow period, in 2100 e.g.. about, poliochni suffered great destruction by earthquake. Then the city began timidly back to grow. Previously it was believed that deserted for long period, but new excavations show that it was inhabited at least on top of the Hill. Not built new buildings, I just repaired the old.
Young(;) residents know the use of the wheel in pottery, proof that no eh-have cultural setback. So the designs and the quality of the vessels were improved. The city has contacts with both Troy IV-V and notio aigaio. But slowly declined and did not know the commercial heyday of older seasons.
This period is the culmination of Koukonesi development and probably has taken the baton from Poliochni as commercial station for those coming to the island.
Poliochni VII (Violet 1700-1400 e.g.) contemporary of Troy VI
The Violet Poliochni didn't show anything new cultural. Is influenced by the Kritomykinaϊko culture, as is evident from the existence of a number of vessels.
Certainly the myths about the Cretan in origin King of Lemnos, the Thoas and Thessalian origin woman of Myrina have some historical background, that corresponds to this season. Some Alliance between the Minoans and Minywn must have been over sovereignty in Lemnos.
However the weight Centre of life on the island has now shifted on Koukonesi, that this time has been a great acne. It is certain that the decline of Poliochne contributed to this development.
source: ellinondiktyo | Amphipolis became game

The first board game for the tumulus of Amphipolis is fact from the Greek company Desylas games.
One of the largest excavations in Greece in recent years, the archaeological site of Amphipolis is threatened by landslides.!!!!! As a result, several teams of archaeologists work feverishly to secure as many of the valuable discoveries, as can.

We hope not to become Act ever scenario despite the particularly good production. Good fun