Amphipolis. gr | Philosophers in the Alexandrian and Roman era

And ap᾽ wonderful panellinian campaign,
the victorious, the resplendent,
the perilaliti, the glorious
as other doxasthike no no,
the unparalleled: bgikam᾽ we;
Greek new world, Megas.
K. Cavafy, "In 200 e.g. "
Alexandrian or Hellenistic era (323-31 e.g.)
Historical circumstances

The conquests of Stretched caused big changes in Greek.
As the Greek world had a smooth and isozygiasmeni picture. There was a kernel, Greece became, While over seas, on the coast of the Mediterranean and the Sea, the settlements had created a regional Crown of Greek plants. The core supported and fed the region and the region supported and fed the core. Yet, both in Greece and in regional facilities, people had a common language, common religion, Customs and traditions – all Greek.
Political unit was the City-State and only the Government parallaze from place to place, both in Greece and in the region, where even the Greek cities in Asia minor happened and found previously subservient to the Persians.

They now changed as Alexandre crushed the Persian State and led the Greek East as the Indus River and South as Egypt. So the Greeks dominated in number of foreigners, alloglwssoys and Muslims peoples – peoples as one place wanted, as a point were forced to ellinisoyn, i.e. to learn Greek and to accept all sorts of Greek influences. From these ellinizontes foreigners got its name the Hellenistic era, but often the call and Alexandrian – not from the Megalexandro, but from Alexandria, Egypt, that for centuries was the most important spiritual Center.

After the death of King Alexander,the Mega the 323 e.g., the conquests of shared, not without disputes and wars, successors. Of the kingdoms created stood out with their acne Seleucid Kingdom in Syria, with capital Antioch, the attalid Kingdom in Asia minor, with its capital in Pergamum, and the Kingdom of Ptolemaic Dynasty in North Africa, with its capital in Alexandria. Important center stood for a while and the Macedonian Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of the Antigonid.
This "new world" was really "great": vast territories are, huge distances, countless multitudes of people, populous States, huge range of commercial and other operations. The Greek products had demand in East, like many East products had demand in Greek areas.
So, the manufacturers stepped up production, transport, especially the seafood, developed and commercial and banking enterprises offered opportunities for immense profits.

Decisive historical phenomenon of that era was the emergence and rapid advance of Romans, that ypotaxan one after another early Greek, then and ellinokratoymenes countries: the subjugation of English regions of southern Italy completed the 270 e.g., Sicilian 210 e.g., of Macedonia and Epirus in 148 e.g.. and the rest of Greece the 146 e.g..

The 133 e.g.. the King of Pergamon, bequeathed the Kingdom of Asia minor to the Romans; 64 e.g.. the Romans conquered the Syria and 31 e.g., After his victory at the battle of Actium, Octavian August and finally crushed the power of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt. The latter date is the conventional boundary between Hellenistic or Alexandrian era and Greco-roman which followed.


Most important cultural center in the Hellenistic era was undoubtedly the Alexandria; but for the Global Center philosophy stayed Athens, where not only continued to operate the Academy and high school but were established and new schools. The integrated report of philosophical theories are not Grammatologias project, that is limited to an overview of schools, the most important representatives and their editorial work.[For Hellenistic Philosophy see. (C). Zographidis and b. Kalfas, Ancient Greek philosophers, ch. 9 Mr. SEM..]

The Academy of Plato-Mosaic Pompeii

The Academy continued the Platonic tradition, giving weight to ideas and to ideatoys numbers more than in the real world. At The Same Time, philosophers of the Academy came time to return to the Socratic tradition, focusing their interests on ethics, but questioning even the possibility of true knowledge. To describe the evolution of academic thought, historians of philosophy stood out after the Old Academy (Plato), two more phases: the Middle and new Academy.

The Academy of Plato in Athens

Important after the Speysippo and the Xenokrati (s.. 172) the scholarch of the Academy (314-270 e.g.) stood the polemon, They argued that the behaviour of human virtue must be consistent with the nature. He wrote several, Diogenes Laërtius tells us,[The Diogenes Laërtius, author of the 3rd ad. century (s.. 275), wrote the Philosophers Bion and doctrines synagogue, that is our best source for life and theories of ancient philosophers.] but they stayed and jokes were lost with the destruction of the Academy.
Student of Polemwna, and successor at the Academy, the crates of Athens, that "left behind books (other philosophical, more on comedy, other with public speeches and ambassadorial) but and notable students, among them the Arkesilao ... " (Diogenes Laërtius 4.23).

Arcesilaus and Karneadis-Arcesilaus was an ancient Greek philosopher and founder of the middle or Second Academy. He was a pupil of Theophrastus, the peripatetic, as well as the Polemwna and the Member.

The Arcesilaus from Asia minor Pitani (316-242 e.g.), disciple of the peripatetic Theophrastus and of Polemwna and of States, marked the shift from the Old to the Middle Academy. Specific, reacting to the dogmatism of Stoics, Arcesilaus returned to the swkratikoys dialektikoys ways: projected arguments supporting or negating any location without ends nowhere. Only correct attitude was in his opinion the epochi, like the edidaske Pyrrho (s.. 221), that is, the suspension of any final crisis – and this is not gi᾽ wrote nothing!
For the same reason, believing in the epochi, left no writings and the most important representative of the Middle Academy, the Karneadis of Cyrene (214-129 e.g.), more diligent man with important rhetorical skills, they dispatched to Rome[The 156 e.g.. the Athenians, to support their position in a dispute they had with the inhabitants of Oropos, sent to Rome instead of other representatives three philosophers: the academic Karneadi, the Stoic Diogenes and the trekking Kritolao. The three of them are impressed with the wisdom and eloquence the Romans so, so some conservative circles feared that would corrupt young and cared xaposteiloyn them the fastest.] He was speaking one day in favour of and the other against justice.
However, Although he believed that each fixed post is pointless, because there is no definite criterion of truth, again he taught that pondering the chances to avoid the big mistakes.

O carneades

O carneades was an ancient Greek skeptic philosopher of the second century b.c.. He was born in year 214 ή 213 e.g.. in the Greek city of Cyrene in North Africa. Young still came to Athens and studied at the Academy of Plato, where he excelled and was assigned the boss. Main source CVS Karneadi information is the work of Diogenes Laertioy, Lives of the philosophers.[Lives and gnwmai of in filosofia eydokimisantwn, Book Iv].
The Karneadis was born in Cyrene Libya the 214 ή 213 e.g.. and soon came in Athens, where joined at the Academy. In Athens, He studied the Igisino of Pergamum who, then, was led by the Academy as Scholarch.[2] Grappled intensively with the teachings of the Stoics, especially with the work of the late major stwikoy philosopher Chrysippoy. He attended also courses on the dialectic of Diogenes Seleykio him (aka Diogenes the Babylonian) who was then the head of the Stoic school in Athens. At some point before 155 He was appointed, as successor to Igisinoy, the scholarch of the Academy of Plato. 155 e.g.. visited Rome as ambassadors of Athens he, the Critolaos of megalopolis the Peripatetic and stoic Diogenes Seleykios head. Cause was the negotiation of a fine 500 talents which had been imposed in the city of Athens for the destruction and looting of the city of Oropos. Messenger project was to achieve the elimination or at least reducing the penalty. There they introduced with lectures the philosophical ideas in the heart of Italy. The Karneadis in Rome gave two lectures on justice. At first the praised while the second socked. So won the admiration of the Roman youth with unsettled dialectic reasoning of. The result was a reduction of sentence in 100 talanta.

But the philosopher would also give lectures in the city and the public appearance of Karneadi attracted great attention. The Roman Senate with representatives of Cato the elder pushed for removal of the Rome, to avoid corrupting the youth.
The Karneadis in the lectures of proclaims the failure of metaphysics in General, Sears all philosophical doctrines & schools, denies the existence of natural law, considers inherently vague and undefined the meaning of Justice and, Therefore, the application of any legal system with this, While he believes in both senses awkwardness knowledge and logic.
According to the Karneadi, who further systematizing the teachings of Arkesilaoy of Pitinaioy, the absolute knowledge is a illusion while humans do not possess, Neither can hold, no criterion of truth, and therefore we cannot ever be truly sure of anything, only prisoners pithanokratikwn gnwsiologikwn possible.
Finding the most eylogofanwn of these possibilities is a thorny path that meanders between the ultimate question and the dicey dogmatism. With the Karneadi the Academy of Plato went into a new phase syntonoy skepticism that rejects any dogma and instrument approach of absolute truth.
Left no writings and many of his views are known only through his successor at the Academy (127/126 e.g.) Kleitomachoy. The Karneadis died of old age in Athens, the year 129 ή 128 e.g..

From the site of the Lyceum in Athens

The shift to the new Academy occurred after the destruction of the school, the library and the file by Sylla (84 e.g.), When head was Antiochus from Ashkelon of Syria (PR. Seleucid Kingdom). As philosopher Antiochus can and should be called selective, as his teaching was based on themes where academics, the ambulatory and the Stoic philosophers generally agree.
The eclecticism of the broadcast and the most famous disciple of, the Cicero, He attended his lessons when he visited Athens, the 77 e.g..
From the works of Plato's successors above are saved only limited excerpts and information.
The School continued its peripatetic philosopher's tradition of its founder, the empiricism and the cultivation of individual Sciences. Even though the academic work continued for centuries in this real pan-epistimio, the philosopher Aristotle's theory was neglected and the books of, with the exception of some external dialogues, lived unknown.
Station and renewal of its ambulatory continuation of philosophy was, the 1st b.c.. century, the discovery and publication of the works of Aristotle by the then head of Lyceum, the Andronicus of Rhodes (s.. 276).

Disciple of Aristotle Evdemos (42nd/3rd BC. αι.) turned, After the death of his teacher, Home Rhodos, where he founded his own school. As Theophrastus (s.. 176), the Evdemos stayed loyal to the Aristotelian teaching. Of the many sensible, Math, Astronomical etc.. best-known projects is the natural, where with a few variations and clarify the reference made Aristotle's work.

Disciple of Aristotle was Demetrios Falireas (42nd/3rd BC. αι.), orator, politician and legislator, that as a representative of Kassandrou ruled Athens for ten years and wanted, as a point and succeeded, to impose to the Athenians the ambulatory moral and political authorities. Respectively, in a large number of his works were dissertations Of laws, Of the Decade, Of demagogy, Of ritorikis etc etc.

The Straton of Sardis by the Lampsako was for many years a teacher of Ptolemy II before his successor Theophrastus at high school (287 e.g.). Of the many and varied projects that delivered that wrote most known were the theses on subjects like Cosmology and physics, Perhaps because they did not hesitate to disagree with Aristotle.
The Fasili Critolaos of megalopolis from Asia minor was Director of the Lyceum by the 180 as the 170 e.g.. Remarkable was his tendency to underestimate the political orators and General rhetorical, I saw "more botch job despite art». Value were gi᾽ him philosophers theorists as masters every virtue.
From the works of Theophrastus after hiking the Hellenistic philosophers survive not only limited excerpts and information.


ASSISTANT (341-271 e.g.)[More about the Adjunct and philosophy see. (C). Zographidis and b. Kalfas, Ancient Greek philosophers, ch. 10.] Biwsas Lathe.[«Live quietly (away from politics), you don't understand. "] Born in Samos by Athenian parents, but later moved with his family to the Colophon. [The Colophon was an ancient city of Ionia, built near the coast of Asia minor, between Lebedo and Efeso] According to tradition he studied in Naysifani, follower of Democritus, and on Pamfilo, follower of Plato.
Young lived in Mytilene and Lampsako, where he founded and its first school. Thirty-five years old he went to Athens, bought a House with a garden at the periphery of the city and first set up the school of, the garden, more a friendly community where everyone could come to symfilosofisei rather than the usual school concept.
His teaching has had success, Why respond to needs of the people of the time and because he with his personality and his lifestyle was a living example atarachoy and happy man: witnesses ' gratitude to his parents, the support to the brothers of, the kindness of the minions […], generally benevolent attitude towards all. Are not described with the words eysebeia to the gods and the country " (Diogenes Laërtius 10.10).

THE Assistant He believed that the purpose of philosophy is not to provide knowledge and skills, but to make people happy. So his attitude was negative towards rhetoric, the logic, math and other mental fields, as more valuable than the mind had, believed, the sensations. Positive concepts in teaching was self-sufficiency, offering freedom, the friendship, that contribute to security, wisdom, mental equanimity, more ap᾽ all the pleasure, Unlike the pain, the fear, regret and deprivation.
Pleasure Epicurus saw syddeti with human nature and not stood out by virtue. Characteristic and the teaching of the death, you do not need, said, at all to the fear, because "as we exist we don't present the death, and when death is present, does not exist we» (Diogenes Laërtius 10.125).

The writings of Epicurus was huge: over 40 theses, among them one Of Nature in 37 books. Our hands reached ((a)) the project LINKS: Kyriai doxai, where were recorded for didactic use, well formulated in simple reason, some basic posts,[A newer gnwmologio of Epicurus survives in the Vatican Library.] ((b)) the testament of, and ((c)) three letters – important, as one exposes condensed his views on Physics, in other celestial phenomena, and in the third for the moral.
Information about teaching and excerpts from the works of Epicurus rescue us crowd yet sources, e.g.. the karboyniasmenoi papyri of the Villa of Piswna in Heraklion, near Pompei, which when read reveal fragments of the writings of Filodimoy.[The Philodemus of Gadara of Syria (CA. 110-40 e.g.), philosopher and poet, He lived for a time in Naples, southern Italy, where the teaching, the acquaintances and many of the writings helped to spread the philosophy of Epicurus.]

Successors of Epicurus There have been many, the school was kept alive as the 1st b.c.. century, and his teaching much more. Particularly important was the spread of epicurean philosophy in Rome, where among the friends and fans of included figures such as Horace, the Seneca, Lucretius on ap᾽ all, that his work "nature of things" (De rerum natura) is a comprehensive report of physical theory of Epicurus.

Competitive, Yes and hostile, in the garden stood the second philosophical school founded and flourished in the Hellenistic years, the Arcade. The extremely long duration and the change of leading historians of philosophy to distinguish, as in the case of the Academy, three phases: the Ancient and the Middle Arcade in the Hellenistic period, and the New Arcade in Roman times.[More about the philosophy of the lodge in the book of (c). Zwgrafidi and b. Kalfa, Ancient Greek philosophers, ch. 11.]

Zeno Kitieys

ZENON (332-261 e.g.)
Born in Kition in Cyprus, but the descent was from (the PR. Seleucid Kingdom) in Phoenicia. Twenty year old found in Athens, where for ten years in the States mathitepse cynical, in Stilpwna the megarian (s.. 168) and in the Polemwna of the Academy (s.. 214). In his thirties he began giving himself lessons in Varied lodge,[Varied (colorful) It was called one of the arcades of the Athenian market, because the number of murals adorned, among them the famous "iliupersis" polygnotos.] ap᾽ where she was named the school of. His teaching was from the outset a great success and brought together many important students.

The Athenians have made Lomé as lived, and when he died the relinquished, Although it was a stranger(not an Athenian citizen) , public grave in Keramikos – to know all, wrote the resolution, that • dimos Ἀthinaiwn τῶν ἀgathoys zwntas toys and tima and teleytisantas (Diogenes Laërtius 7.12). The philosophy had been intense effects, but this has not prevented it to be significantly different from both the classic systems of Plato and Aristotle and the modern teachings of Epicurus and considerations.
His was the Division of philosophy into ((a)) Logic, with content the epistemology, grammar, the rhetoric and logic, ((b)) Natural, Ontology content, Cosmology, Psychology and theology, and ((c)) Moral, where was giving and the greater weight. The aim of philosophy was (What else;) the Bliss, with a prerequisite the virtue.
An opinion of how his thinking has been with the trends of the season: "Not live apart in cities and organized into townships, having defined our own each place fairly, but all people to consider syndimotes and fellow; one is the way of life and one class, like a flock that symboskei and syntrefetai under the same regulation as a whole. "[Mi against cities mide oIkwmen Idiois ekastoi diwrismenois municipalities dikaiois, but all ἀnthrwpoys igwmetha dimotas and εἷς life politas; he ż and world, wsper ἀgelis nomw koinw syntrefomenis such (aposp. 262 = Plutarch, Ethical 329a-b).] In writing of the project included, Apart from the philosophical theses Of against nature of life, Of pathwn etc., and literary works: Of words, Of poiitikis ἀkroasews and five books Omirikwn problems – all, Apart from little snippets, lost.

The Zeno succeeded in Arcade kleanthis from Ace of Trwadas (330-232 e.g.). In Athens had come as poor Boxer, but enthused with the teachings of Zeno so that night to work in the orchards and the day studying. As head of the school of efilosofise gennaiotata: He remained faithful to his master's theories, He wrote numerous books to support and supplement, developed the Stoic theology and composed a technically and philosophically meaningful Hymn to Zeus, We saved. However, in the years of the stoical philosophy was challenged from many sides and the school may have been dissolved, unless the next scholarch of chanced, Chrysippus, be both dynamic and worthy.

Chrysippus the philosopher Chrysippus, son of Fast from the Hock, He was one of the most important of the Stoic school, alleged one of the founders of. He was born in Soloys or in Tarsus of Cilicia

ChRYSIPPOS (CA. 280-205 e.g.)
EI mi gar in Chrysippus, oyk if in Arcade.["If there was no Chrysippus, There would be neither the lodge. "] Diogenes Laërtius 7.183
Descended from the Soloys of Cilicia. Young came to Athens and initially studied at the Academy. Later joined the stwikismo and became, in troubled times, able and Savior of head Lodge. "Intelligent man and Curt […] tsakwthike with Zeno, but with Kleanthi. The latter often said that reaches to taught the doctrines; evidence will find alone» (Diogenes Laërtius 7.179).
Really, the dialectic comfort that had apochtisei in kgfai the syllogistikes Academy of skills helped him first to systemize the Stoic teaching and support on solid rational bases.
The tradition of returns over 700 theses, covering almost all fields of philosophy. So, No wonder when we learn that his books were highly casually, full replays, procrastination and quotations from other authors.

The shift toward the middle of the ancient Lodge took place with the Panaitio from Rhodes (CA. 185-109 e.g.). Before joining the Lodge, He had the mathitepsei States Panaitios, the worthy philologist of Pergamon (s.. 227). Lived in Rhodes, where was a priest of Poseidon, in Rome, where syntrofepse with the Scipio Emilianos, and in Athens, where the last twenty years of his life as head of Lodge attracted and taught numerous notable students. The philosophy of, less rigorous than its predecessors, accepted some of the suggestions of the Academy and of the promenade; and on ethics teaching was tailored to the ideals of (Romans) political and military leaders. The writings of Panaitioy have been lost; but Cicero's De officiis follows in many of his own making On thesis of duty.

Posidonius of Rhodes or Apameys was a Greek Stoic philosopher, polymath, astronomer, geographer, politician, historian and teacher born in Apamea, Syria. The thought the polymathestero man in the world for its time

POSEIDWNIOS (CA. 135-50 e.g.)
Posidonius of Apamea the ,Syria (PR. Seleucid Kingdom), He was disciple of Panaitioy. For many years he traveled in Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, the Spain, the Portugal, the Gaul and North Africa, until finally settled and taught in Rhodes, where watched for a bit of homework and recognized the value of first by Cicero (77 e.g.), later and Pompey (66 and 62 e.g.).[Feature that, When he wrote a separate Around Istorian Pompiion, Cicero sent him and a report of his own personal action; but hope to honor him and that the philosopher with a work is faltering.] The interesting, respectively and writings, the Poseidwnioy were not limited to ethics, the logic and other philosophical fields itself, but expanded and in theology, Cosmology, Astronomy, the fysiognwsia, Geography, the Ethnography and history. In the latter field he decided to continue the work of Polybius history (s.. 207) and wrote the Meta Polybion Istoriin in 56 books, covering the years from the 146 as the 88 e.g..
The breadth of interests and the anthropological erudition of Poseidwnioy helped him to develop a philosophical system of universal, fitting with the historic image of the era, where the Roman Empire possessed and fix everything. Single and tachtiko the universe of Poseidwnioy included the gods, people and the natural world, all in harmonious coexistence and cooperation, tied with what the Stoics called sympatheian.
Of the numerous works of Poseidwnioy not saved any. Only information we, Some quotations and references, showing his great influence on subsequent thinkers, Greeks and Romans.

The works of Poseidwnioy was not the only lost. Apart from the hymn to Zeus of Kleanthis, from the rich production of ancient and Middle Lodge any work we have saved. Strange, because indirect reports and information indicate that the Stoic teaching had great resonance in thinking not only of the Hellenistic age and the ages that followed.
The third philosophical direction developed in alexandrina years, the Skepsis, no organized in school with the literal meaning, but based on the oral teaching of Pyrrwna, built and was completed by his students.

The Pyrrho ileios was a Greek philosopher, founder of the school of skepticism

PYRRWN (CA. 360-270 e.g.)
Panti logw reason ἀntikeitai.["Every reason has (equivalent.) independent minds ".] Diogenes Laërtius 9.74
Born in Elis and upon delivery since the Megalexandro in his campaign as the Indies, where he met Gymnosofistwn and philosophy of the Magi. Certain is only that for many years he lived poor and honored in his homeland as a freelance teacher of philosophy.
The Pyrrho did not leave behind any textbook – naturally, We would say, having believed that there are no objective criteria of truth, that nothing is certain and that each reason applies just as well as the antithetos of, IE at all. All you can and must do is to think (i.e. to observe) the phenomena, remaining indifferent, unruffled and therefore happy.
Forerunners of skepticism[Skepticism is called in history of philosophy Pyrrwna theory and Skeptical (philosophers) the followers of. However, in modern language, the term is used more generally with skepticism the importance of ' doubt,' defiance ', even the "distrust" against every claim; and those who adhere to this position are called "skeptics".] can be considered everyone who occasionally questioned whether the very existence of truth or the ability of people to fix it, but the absolute epochi, i.e. the refusal of the wise to express any judgment, should be attributed to the teachings of Pyrrwna, where ap᾽ and adopted the Arcesilaus and the Karneadis of the Middle Academy (s.. 214).

The teaching of Pyrrwna solidified and recorded much later, the 1st b.c.. century, from the Cretan Ainesidimo who taught philosophy in Alexandria. The Pyrrwneiwn reasons oktw books I wrote were for the most part lost, but their content is pretty much known by other authors, modern as Cicero, or downstream such as Sextus the empirical (s.. 281).
In the chapter of alexandrine philosophy included three more authors, they preferred to filosofisoyn with satirical mood, and in verse:

The Timon of flious (CA. 320-230 e.g.) He was disciple of Pyrrwna. He wrote numerous works, prose and poetry, among them silloys satirists, where diakwmwdoyse the various philosophical systems and their representatives.

The Radius of the Megalopolis (CA. 290-220 e.g.), politician, legislator and cynical admirer of Diogenes, ithikoplastikoys Meliamboys wrote in Doric dialect, where love compliment when it comes good, but he blamed the wealth and the gods that don't divide properly.
A contemporary of Grandstand and disciple of shameless was the Menippus of Gadara of Syria, which in turn parodied the philosophical systems and philosophers. His works, where the nonfiction dianthizotan with lyrics, have lost, but the unmistakable effect at katopinoys Greeks and Romans satirical authors allows us to guess at the accuracy and their eyrimatikotita.

Greco-Roman era (31 BC-330 ad.)
Historical circumstances

The 30 e.g., with the incorporation of Egypt in their territory, the Romans essentially completed their possessive dash in East and West. With the exception of some regional areas, that and they don't take long to conquer, all the known world had in one way or another accepted Roman sovereignty.
Contemporary with the incorporation of Egypt, and important as historical fact, was the conversion of the peculiar Roman Republic in AutoCAD, with First Emperor Augustus, He ruled successfully from 29 e.g.. as the 14 a.d. – forty-three years. Followed in unbroken order more than fifty emperors, other good, other baddies, until at 11 May 330 a.d. Constantine the great inaugurated as capital of the Roman Empire the New Rome, later renamed Constantinople.
Terrible in war, the Romans were in peacetime symbibastikoi, almost high-minded towards the conquered, and often leave them, at least seemingly, to kybernioyntai with their own laws[Already the 194 e.g.. the Roman Governor Titus Kointios Flamininos, After winning in the second Macedonian war, had declared that leaves eleytheroys and ἀfroyroys and ἀforologitoys, chrwmenois tois patriois nomois, Corinthians, Fwkeis, Locri in, Eyboeas etc.. (Plutarch, Titus 10) – but the reality proved different. The same proclaimed the 66 a.d. and Nero for all Greeks, but a few years later the decision was cancelled by the Bespasiano.] – arrives not absorbed Roman interests and peithontan at Emperor's cheques, of the Senate and appointed their representatives.[Plutarch advised anyone who planned to deal with the policy says to himself: "Kyberniesai myself, and govern city subservient to anthypatoys, the Commissioners of the Emperor» (Politika commands 17).] Beneficial for vassals, individuals and States, was the exemption from taxation, While the highest reward for those who have shown practical commitment in Rome was to be awarded the title, and to recognize the rights of Roman citizens. The latter became more and more frequently as the years progressed, until the 212 a.d. be named, by edict of Caracalla, Roman citizens all free inhabitants of the Empire.
The relative leniency of the Romans no prevent the conquered areas to suffer badly from the conquerors, that whole isopedwnan States, katalisteyan artistic and other treasures and exploited their economic potential. Poor return on so many sufferings was for Greek regions respect and favor that showed some emperors towards Athens, Ephesus, Delphi, elefsis and other religious and cultural centers.
Remarkable strength outside of Rome did not exist in Greco-roman time, nor could thrive, as the Rome imposed by its size and only. And of course completely never stopped military operations in the region, Neither the internal conflicts, When the succession of emperors do not evolve smoothly, but uprisings were minimal and generally the Roman peace lasted centuries.
The overall political situation we can understand better by reading a sentence you wrote about mid 1st century. a.d. one for our anonymous author: "As maintaining the memory of freedom and employs the ypodoylo, the people want and shows strong resistance; but when evil prevails and people are not talking anymore how I make over them but how to live more easily with him, then the destruction is complete» (The chians, Letter 14.2). Don't forget, However, that already from the time of Stretched the peoples lived in large box monokratoriwn, and that the Roman domination, as unpleasant and if it was, constituted a guarantee of peace, law and order.


Athens has continued and in Greco-Roman years is a center of philosophical studies and its role strengthened, When the 176 a.d. the Emperor and philosopher Marcus Aurelius (s.. 280) He set up in Athens four philosophical seats, than one for Academy, the walk, the Arcade and epikoyreioys – not for skeptics, who doubted everything.
The various philosophical schools or directions continued, with their representatives to teach, to interpret, to complement and promote the thinking of the founder of the school and their successors. However, Since the last Hellenistic philosophers were beginning to lay aside their differences and to converge, phenomenon that now, in Greco-roman times, universally: followers of a school does not have hesitated to adopt ideas from other directions, and the philosophical thought tended to integrate in a single system, eclectic.
Don't forget that in Greco-Roman years next to philosophy was developing a new religion, Christianity, the apocalyptic teachings of not only solve ethical problems and dictate a virtuous lifestyle, but it still fell short of the metaphysical needs of believers and xanoige prospects for a better afterlife in the afterlife.
Compelled to compete, natural philosophy was to give this emphasis on the transcendental and mystical of faces. So, for a time blossomed again pythagorismos;, in the philosophical field dominated the Neoplatonism, they had assimilated crowd figures from other schools and was intensely metaphysical and mystical tendencies.

Station on the threshold of the Greco-Roman era was the publication of the works of Aristotle by Andronicus (s.. 174 NB. 156). As was only natural, the version, where for the first time the Aristotelian philosophy presented in full and as integrated system (that wasn't, s.. 175), gave the high school new life – and employment.

The aristotelikes treatises were concise and obscure as to content and language. So, in the decades that followed the version, a whole range of set-up philosophers studied the study, comment, to erminepsoyn and parafrasoyn the aristotelika projects, without their care would continue to remain unknown.
First Andronicos himself from Rhodes introduced in version one's own introduction and added the biography of Aristotle, a list of his works and some reviews. Followed the student of Hotepsekhemwy from Sidon, He commented on the Course, classes and Ἀnalytika formerly, the Xenarchos from Seleucia, Although peripatetic challenged basic aristotelikes posts, Nicholas of Damascus, We met him and as a historical (s.. 264) etc.. Their common trait is the tendency to introduce in Aristotelian philosophy, as interpreted, figures from academic and stoic theory.

Important cultural centre was from the Hellenistic period, and maintained in the Greco-roman era, and Alexandria. Εκεί, where the Jewish community was, We remind, the biggest after the Greek, held, end of 1st BC. and early 1st ad. century, a significant, prochristianiki, approach Judaism with Greek philosophy.
(P. ARChAIOGN/or Alexandria was ellinikotati and the guard of the Roman legion composed owned by Greek soldiers ,as with the legions in the East Mediterranean and was not simply a large Greek community )

Born in Alexandria from family who were financially independent, politically strong and linguistically hellenized, so the Friends do not know even the Hebrew and he is the theological and philosophical works in Koine Greek. All that we know about his life is that he visited Jerusalem and Rome, where the 40 a.d. defended as diplomatic dispatched the interests of the Jews of Alexandria.
The starting point has always been the old testament, like the knew from the Septuagint, and the attachment to the Jewish spiritual tradition it stood steadfast. However, He gave two of his works, in Ἀlexandron and in the welfare Of, the characteristics of Platonic interactive format and do not hesitate, interpreting the Judaic holy texts, to use Greek approaches, as in Laws Ierwn ἀlligoriai, and to adopt Greek, stwikes or other ideas, as on Of the spoydaion is always eleytheron.
Of the numerous works of, other, as the life Of Moses, survived intact; other, as some legends in the Pentateuch, in Armenian translation; other, as the Ἀpologia in favour Ioydaiwn, We are known only from fragments in their books parathesan younger Christian writers.

The Apollonius neopythagoreios Tyaneas was a Greek philosopher from Tyana of the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia minor

Apollonius of Tyana of Cilicia (1nd a.d. αι.) ap᾽ edge s᾽ edge travelled the Empire by unleashing the Pythagorean way of life: piety, prayer, the frugality, vegetarianism, sexual Continence k. t.. He did not have reason to believe that he was a crook, as the featured, always kakoglwssos, Lucian. But had not the supernatural gifts who would the followers of, When you argue that could talk to the animals, reject the gremlins, to resurrect dead and, prisoner, to solve the shackles of. His reputation was left alive and the 2nd a.d.. century the Empress Julia Domna commissioned in Flavio Filostrato to write Home in the Tyanea Ἀpollwnion (s.. 261), curriculum project where the historical data it was natural to have subsided ahead of the dominant legend.
From his own works the Teleytai or of thysiwn and Of pythagorikou of life is lost. But were 77 letters, among them some that may well have written it himself.
Apollonius was not the only one who preached with success the Pythagorean philosophy.
The mystical-religious dimensions of teaching of Pythagoras was to resonate in a society he sought metaphysical props. So, No wonder when in Greco-Roman years widely circulated, unknown when and by whom written, the epi Chrysa (quotations) of Pythagoras, or when some (neo)pythagoreanism,[Is it coincidence when the three greatest, the Moderatos of Gadara (1nd a.d. αι.), the Nicomachus of Jerash (11st/2nd a.d. αι.) and the Noyminios of the Apamea (2nd a.d. αι.), all came from Syria;] combining in their works the Pythagorean with platonic theory, paved roads to the neoplatwnismo.

The stoical philosophy represented the 1st a.d. century with a group of philosophers, all of whom, in one way or another, initiated in the fields of allegory. The Kornoytos from the Libyan Lepti interpreted the Greek theological system Jupiter by equating with the soul, IRA with air, Athena with wisdom etc. · the misnomer Kevitos Theban Table, certainly does not belong in Kebi socraticus (s.. 167) but in an about us anonymous philosopher who wanted, interpreting a patently fantastic, allegorical picture, recommend the Stoic road to bliss, where no one arrives with the pseydopaideian of music, the numeric, rhetoric, etc., but only with Temperance, the fortitude and the other moral virtues; in our hands arrived and Omirikai ἀlligoriai of Heraclitus from Pontos (;), where e.g.. It is argued that the arrows of Apollo at the beginning of the Iliad is not from the rays of the Sun, that cause epidemics and drought.


Apollonius, as a representative of the Pythagorean, trying to give content to the pneymatikotero corrupt polytheia era. And I do not understand some polytheists of today. Consider the mythology "work of poets" and abhorred the noticeable expression of divinity, but the powerful love of freedom was an innate tendency toward magic, the prophecy and thaymatoyrgia, the same – if you want- people of that era.
Apollonius Tyaneys had imposed a correct lifestyle: After a five-year silence imposed on himself, He began a series of tours, in conjunction with ascetic life, preaching abstinence from the bloody sacrifices, wine, bathrooms and erotic Orgies. Went to Ephesus, Pergamum, Troy, Lesvos, Evia, Piraeus (60 a.d. in celebration of the eleusinian), in Athens, at Thermopylae (where he met the Amfiktiones). Also visited the temples of Apollo Delphi Abwn, the divination Dodonis and Trofoniou, the Holy Amfiaraou and Muses, Olympia, Sparta, Crete, Rome and Spain.
Then the Apollonian Tyaneys returned again in Greece (the 68 a.d.), where he was initiated into the eleusinian mysteries. Went on Chios, Rhodes, Egypt, where he became acquainted with the Roman Emperor Bespasiano, but she complained to him about the Roman annexation of Achaea. After he fled to Cilicia, When he met the son of the Emperor Titus, and he continued his journey towards Syria and Phoenicia.
And here is worth to say something important: The vileness of the emperor Domitian and his marriage to the beautiful niece of Julia aroused the indignation of Apollonius, I didn't hesitate to go to Rome to denounce. WHAT,what IE did a contemporary of, I was listening to the name John the Baptist, When denounced the Herod, who did similar things with Irwdiada and her daughter Salome (Gospel of mark, Parlay Vi).
In the trial, that followed his arrest Fast of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus, He attended the emperor Domitian, but that stopped the trial and left the katigoro to flee from Rome.

This interesting oil painting 1874 is the work of N. B. Starr and depicts Apollonius.

The 93 e.g.. Apollonius attended at the Olympics, went to the Oracle of Trofoniou, He stayed two years in Achaia and the 95 He returned to Ephesus. The was the murder of Domitian and the rise of the Roman throne of his friend and philhellene Neroya.
It is a fact, that Apollonius died in deep giratia on Trajan, around 100 a.d. and efimizeto that all tours of giatreye sick, He turned away the wicked demons, did fortune telling, prophecies and that said did even "resurrections it is too much dead"..
Can, of course his salvation from the Roman court considered miracle, and the vision that saw the moment of the murder of Domitian and all that, in conjunction with the virtuous life, they had like result be honored posthumously as a hero or God even. Though, as we read, the neoplatonist philosopher Hierocles of Alexandria (5century a.d.) disciple of Plutarch, the featured more important than Jesus, causing the war of ecclesiastical history Eysebioy.
Apollonius, as a representative of the Pythagorean, trying to give content to the pneymatikotero corrupt polytheia era. And I do not understand some polytheists of today. Consider the mythology "work of poets" and abhorred the noticeable expression of divinity, but the powerful love of freedom was an innate tendency toward magic, the prophecy and thaymatoyrgia, the same – if you want- people of that era.
The life of the Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus Fast with many fantastic additions described by Moirageni and from the Filostrato, in order of Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. Apollonius (as a historical person) left behind some projects: Teletai or on sacrifices (quotations in Eysebio) and a bion Pythagoroy, that in turn has been a source for the biography of Pythagoras by Iamblichus wrote halkida (There quotes)· from the 77 Letters that saved us, could, However, Some are genuine. ANGELOS SAKKETOS

The Acquired Ierapolitis (from the Hierapolis of Phrygia) born in the middle of the 1st century of Christian chronologisews and originally was a slave of an imperial officer, of Epafroditoy, who released him when once settled permanently in Rome. The Epictetus studied stoic philosophy next to Moysonio Ruffo and then taught himself in Rome, designate one of the cruellest forms of Stwϊkismoy

Born a slave at Hierapolis of Phrygia, but had the good fortune to serve in Rome an extremely rich and educated apeleythero, the Epafrodito, that gave comfort to mathitepsei in stoic philosopher Moyswnio Ruffo[ We are known a whole line of Stoics and philosophers who taught with success in Rome: ARIUS Didymus, friend of Augustus, the Chaeremon, teacher of Nero, etc.. The stoical philosophy from the outset had great resonance in Roman spiritual cycles, where those years the represented the famous politician, poet and philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 b.c.-65 a.d.).] and later released him. Teaching anymore myself, the Acquired stayed in Rome as the year that the Domitian banished all philosophers (89 a.d.). Persecuted from Italy, He settled in Nicopolis of Epirus, where he continued to teach with great success until his death.
He did not write anything; but the student had known us historic Flavio Arriano (s.. 266), We diligently record verbatim, in the common, as were, his lessons (Of ἀtaraxias, How ferein dei tas diseases, Respect epikoyreioys and ἀkadimaϊkoys etc.), and published with the title Diatribai. Of the eight books of Diatribwn have saved the four, and a separate book, the Egcheiridion, where again Arrian had summarized the moral teaching of teacher. The philosophy of Epictetus was basically stoic, with elements of cynicism. Addressed to the average person, systinontas to fight his passions with the logikon and follow free reads command.

Has correctly observed that in Greco-Roman years the lodge had highlighted two extremely important philosophers: a slave, the Acquired, and an emperor, Marco Ayrilio, and, as was only natural, each of them spoke with his own way: the Epictetus was addressed in many, with rational arguments; Marcus Aurelius himself, with aphorisms.


MARKOS AYRILIOS (121-180 a.d.)
Endon skapte; the ἀgathou pigi of endon.[ "Inside (Sou) digging (to seek)· inside (Sou) is the source of the goods. "] Εἰς eayton 7.59
Marcus Aurelius had mathitepsei in the famous Roman orator and ritorodidaskalo Frontwna and Herod the Attic (s.. 257). Both the proorizan for orator, but eventually prevailed over its inclination towards philosophy. As emperor was unlucky: external enemies and internal rebels forced him to spend more than twenty years of power in warfare.
Εἰς eayton's work is a kind of diary where the philosopher-Emperor katagrafe with brief comments (e.g.. "those very ymnithikan already delivered to oblivion, and those who have long since disappeared moaning», 7.6), aforistikes crises (e.g.. • ἀdikwn eayton ἀdikei, eayton poiwn kakon, 9.4), Tips and categorical dictates to himself (e.g.. mi aIschynoy aided, 7.7).
Its philosophy derives a lot from Neptunium and Acquired and focuses on ethical behavior, recommending inner freedom from the passions, serenity, moderation, gentleness and tolerance – virtues that characterize and. Only Christians stood ategktos; perhaps because she saw how easily religion could them with moral teaching to substitute any practical philosophy.

As you would expect, the convergence of philosophical systems influenced the Academy, where philosophers – Eudoros (1ND BC/1st ad. αι.), Gaius (11st/2nd a.d. αι.), the Albinus (2nd a.d. αι.) etc.. – from the one adopted and incorporated in the Platonic theory pythagorikes, walking and stwikes ideas, of the other promoted to their posts the metaphysical and mystical elements of Platonism, preparing the conversion of the intensely theological neoplatwnismo. Last in series, the Celsus (2nd a.d. αι.) in his work Ἀlithis reason he put, make guesses because, with Christians.

The Sextus the Empirical (2nd half 2nd-early 3rd century m. CH.) He was a philosopher and physician, representative of scepticism in philosophy and empiricism in medicine, known mainly from the surviving books of, which are drawn between 180 and of the 200 m. X. By his own testimony shows that came from Greece and from Diogenes Laërtius him that he was a disciple of Herodotus's doctor and teacher of Tarsea Satoyrinoy. Likely considered his activity in Rome.[World Biographical Dictionary, Tom. 9(A), s.. 236, 1988] Named Rule because it followed the empirical (contrary to the doctrinal or theoretical) medical school, He had close relations with philosophical skepticism

Of his life we know only that he was a doctor, the empirical School of Irofiloy (s.. 230). But his works are preserved ((a)) Pyrrwneioi ypotypwseis, a summary of the views of Pyrrwna, founder of the school of considerations (s.. 221), and ((b)) Thoughtfully, consisting of five books Respect dogmatic, that is against all philosophers who believe in the rightness of their firm theory, and six books Respect mathematicians, that is against all of those who love learning, hold or teach a specific lesson: of grammatical, of ritorodidaskalwn, the astronomers, of natural, Mathematics with its current meaning, music etc.

Pyrrwneiees ypotypwseis-Alte Pinakothek- Munich

In all these the Sextus manages, applying with a lot of skill the beginning of Pyrrwna that panti logw reason ἀntikeitai, to prove not only that what they think they know is wrong, but also that their every attempt to discover something true and right from the outset is futile.
Aptly observed that "klonizontas [with their arguments] cognitive features of rationality, representatives of skepticism helped, unintentionally, to pave the way for mysticism. " ((A). Words)
Around 200 a.d. a wealthy citizen at Oinoanda in Lycia, Diogenes, fanatic follower of the philosophy of Epicurus (s.. 216), established after his death to built a huge inscription (over 40 meters length!) "for the good of the city and foreigners who visit». The inscription, I found and posted by riven archaeologists, It contained four own writings, quotations and letters – all in the context of epicurean philosophy.

A contemporary of Diogenes it must have been the peripatetic Aristoklis from Messina, Sicily, author of a work On philosophy, ap᾽ where we saved quotes.
His disciple was Alexander from Aphrodisias in Cilicia (22nd/3rd a.d. αι.), holder of the Chair of the promenade which had founded the Marcus Aurelius in Athens. It was of course an exaggeration, When the Byzantines called it Ἀristoteli the second; but when the feature kat᾽ exigitin exochin: the interpretive memo (in Metaphysics, in Detail, The Weather etc.) characterized by strict method and rare discernment.

The last philosophical movement of Greek Antiquity, the Neoplatonism, appeared and developed in the 3rd a.d. century. Typical was the continuation of the Platonism of the Academy, where they had in the meantime mastered crowd pythagorika, aristotelika, with resignation, etc.. items. Essentially however the Neoplatonism developed into a truly new movement: by ideokratia, with the devaluation of the sensible world view concepts such as the ultimate, mental catharsis k. t.. responded better than any other philosophical teachings on spiritual needs of the people of the late Greco-roman era that yearn for metaphysical redemption from the fact.
Pioneer of neoplatwnismoy is considered to be the Ammonius Saccas [The Saccas was given him because paranomi, poor in his youth, He carried bags for living.] by Alexandria (22nd/3rd a.d. αι.), born Christian but preferred to become a national and philosopher. The Ammonius left no written work and his teaching is unknown. But, as a teacher of platonic philosophy in Alexandria, major students, among them are the undeniable archigeti of neoplatwnismoy, Plotinus.

Flavius Philostratus

Flavius Philostratus (160/170 – 244/249 a.d.) is, together with the Diwna the Chrysostomos, the main representative of the Second Sophistic. Although he calls himself an Athenian was born in Lemnos and lived at the end of the 2nd century. and in the first half of the 3rd century. a.d. He went to Athens to study and later settled in Rome, the era that reigned the Septimius Severus, where he gained the favor of the Emperor's wife and mother of Caracalla Julia Domna. After the 217, so they found a tragic end the Julia Domna and Caracalla, He returned to Athens (in other versions he went to Tyros, where the given political rights) to act as a teacher of Sophistic.[World Biographical Dictionary, Tom, 9II s. 298, ekdotiki Athinon 1988] From the extant works of "body filostrateioy" attributed to Flavio Filostrato the following:
Lives of the Sophists in two books. In the first book listed twenty-six philosophers-sophists, with first the Protagoras and last Aeschines, While in the second thirty-three orators, from the authors of new direction as the same author.. Even in this book by Philostratus gave the name to this innovative movement: Second Sophists.
Heroic. Dialogue, that shows a lot of similarities in skopothesia and in character with the Bion Fast of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus.
Gymnastic. It belongs to the tradition of protreptikwn reasons that gives reliable information for matches, kinds of sports and proponisews methods.
Nero. Dialogue, as reminded very Lucian, Annotator was attributed to him. In the work the philosopher Moysiwnos kataggelei the ybrin of tyrannoy.
Letters. Has saved collection of seventy-three letters, written in ornate style, of which most are sex toys. The 73rd has as addressed to Julia Domna and an apology and defense of Sophistic.
Images, in two books. It belongs to the tradition of rhetorical ' expressions ' artworks. Describes sixty-five paintings that in terms of style is the finest work of Filostratoy.[J.s. Filostratoy, ΤΌΜΟΙ 7 REF #. 307-312, Ed. Cactus] Fast life of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus. His reputation has mostly Philostratus in eight books which were: The Apollwnion the Tyanea.[Constantine Cavafy Sages de prosiontwn ] National to use it as a counterweight to the spectacular spread of Christianity altered the image of this historic person (Fast of Mystic Apollonius Tyaneus) adding narratives of Wonderland and presenting him as evil sorcerer in a way that caused the reaction of Lucian with Alexandron or Pseydomantin.[Lucian, Alexander or Pseydomantis]

Plotinus (considered to be the head ) It was an important philosopher of the late Antiquity and founder of the neoplatonic School of philosophy

PLWTINOS (205-270 a.d.)
He was born in Lykopoli of Egypt and studied in Alexandria, where twenty-eight years old he met Ammonium Sakka, enthused with his teachings and stayed close to eleven years. Then, to meet the Persian and Indian philosophy, He followed the Emperor Gordiano III in his campaign in Mesopotamia; quickly though the Gordian was killed and Plotinus traveled, first in Antioch, then in Rome, where he settled and stayed in teaching over the last twenty-five years of his life.
The ascetic personality and teaching impressed the Romans; the reputation for wisdom and righteousness of spread, and there were few those who begged him to resolve their differences or manage as adoptive father fortunes had been orphaned children.
His students were many and worthy, but again not surprised to learn that attempted, but failed, to shape his teachings in standard socraticus dialogue, because discussions were complete ἀtaxias and chatter pollis (Life 3.37).
Following his teacher the ammonium and Socrates, Plotinus did not give importance to the written word. Slowly and with difficulty his students convinced him to write.
So, in the last years of his life, Plotinus record 54 funds from the philosophy of. The surrendered to his disciples, and from these the Porphyry (s.. 284) the tachtopoiise in six groups of nine funds, Depending on their theme, and the published entitled Enneades.

Plotinus or Emperor Galliinos; It is not certain what exactly portrayed in the Centre of the terrain known as the Sarcophagus of Plotinus ' particular important position of Plotinus and the popularity in Roman society still looks from the respect they had to face the Emperor Galliinos and his wife Salwnina. Indeed, Plotinus, wanting to capitalize on their friendship, asked to build a city of philosophers in Campania, in which I followed the laws of Plato and I had the name Platwnopolis. He intended to retire there along with friends and disciples of. But when Porfyrio some of the courtiers of the Emperor the handmade and design barriers not held. Even before his death Plotinus left some memorable and enigmatic words to his disciples saying: "Try to anagete God within you in divine inherent in More». He died in 270 a.d. having lived through the 66 of years. Did not reveal to anyone exactly when she was born, nor on the day of his birthday, because they don't want anyone to make sacrifices or meals for his birthday, Although the traditional birthday of Plato and Socrates was himself a meal and sacrifices to his companions [It was said that Plotinus maybe refused to reveal his birthday and place of origin not because scorned such issues, but because she was afraid that the fanerwnontas could exert influence over several competitors through magic.].

Plotinus wrote as if he was speaking: the language is mixed, the writing of abnormal, the style of atsalo and terminology are often invented by him; par᾽ all, Why has vibrancy and read delightfully, If it wasn't the meanings so complex and abstract.
Plotinus does not ever claimed that brought something new to philosophy. Instead, insisted on saying that another did not by interpreting its predecessors, Plato and Plato's. Properly; but new it was just the interpretation given to the Platonic theory, the composition of accumulated academic knowledge, the way that systematized the diffuse material – the consolidation of Platonism, as the projected mesmerizing his audience. Typical teaching of Platonic en, that not only corresponded with anymore the virtue and beauty, but it was the source of all beings.
With this almost deified, independent and absolute en Plotinus taught that people could, with exercise and a secret Rapture, unite – something that he, If you believe the Porfyrio, the managed four times.

From the disciples of Plotinus stood out ((a)) Eystochios doctor of Alexandria, who did the latest hours and had this issue, before the Porfyrio, the works of the master, and ((b)) the Amelios from Etruria, author of a series of remarkable philosophical writings but lost. Both the work was overshadowed by the editorial and interpretive prosperity of another student, of Porfyrioy.

PORFYRIOS (234-301/4 a.d.)
Porphyry was Syros from the Tyros. Mathitepse first in the Athenian Academy, then for five years in the school of Plotinus in Rome. Then settled for a time in Sicily; but turned to Rome after the death of his master to succeed in students.
Porphyry edited, as we have seen, the version of the Enneadwn Plotinus; but he wrote many. From the 65 projects that we know that he had authored and survived despite the nine, among them the precious life Of Plotinus and the class of this book, and another biography, the Pythagoroy life.
From the rest Of conditionality of ἐν Nymfwn τῶν ἄntroy Odysseia, where the well-known cave of Ithaca (n 102-12) interpreted allegorically as a symbol of the sensible world in ż ··· as Ierw psychai aI megistw diatriboysin (12), and Respect Markellan, his wife, Advisory Letter, where his, ἀlitheia, erws and elpis viewed as four stoicheia which help to approach the man God. From lost works let us remember only Against Christianwn, where the philosopher challenged the biblical Genesis, the enanthrwpisi of Christ and the second coming.
The Porfyrio occupied him more than any other man's attempt to secure the salvation of his soul, by overcoming the mind and the will and passions demons (!) They inhabit. However, his thinking was not particularly original; and he put more importance on correct understanding, commenting and spreading the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus, where the contribution of stood true important.

From the Platonism in neoplatwnismo, and by Plotinus in Porfyrio, the academic theory more and more away from the traditional philosophical reflections, increasingly sought and found answers to theological issues rather than philosophically. The same trend continued with the third important representative of neoplatwnismoy, Iamblichus.

The Iamblichus

IAMVLICHOS (CA. 250-325 a.d.)
The Iamblichus was Syros, as porphyry, He taught philosophy in Rome, but of course that didn't stop student and teacher to clash later in many. Deeply religious and mystical nature, the Iamblichus believed and that the existence of demons; while the Porphyry clutching distances from the divination, the magic and any attempt to influence of gods with arcane rituals and magganeies, the Iamblichus judged necessary for the philosopher to approach, with the intercession of demons, the divine knowledge.
As you would expect, the torque of mysticism and Theosophy led him to study in depth the pythagorismo and want to spread. By the complex task of Pythagorean doctrines Synagwgi saved the life Of the pythagorikou, the Reason protreptikos filosofian respect, the Theologoymena of ἀrithmitikis etc..
Yet, as genuine neoplatonist, the Iamblichus omitted not to comment on some works of Aristotle and of Plato, believing that the latter spoke with aInigmata (hints) and proposing new ways of interpretation.

Ta biographical information for Iamblichus, particularly for the years of his youth, are scarce. The offspring of the rich and aristocratic family, born around 250 m. X. in Chalkida of Hollow Syria. It is said that his family was descended from Kings priests of emesas (today's Homs), City famous for the Temple of the Sun God syrofoinikikoy Iliogabaloy. Proud of his national origin, refused to accept Greek or Latin name, According to the custom of the time, and kept the Syrian-mlikoy, "God rules". Originally studied the neoplatwnismo close to the trekking Anatolio, one of the first students of the Porfyrioy and then next to the Porfyrio, the leading disciple of Plotinus, probably in Rome, which succeeded to the position of Heir of the Neo-platonic School. Earlier, however, had founded his own school in Syria, where his fame attracted a crowd of students from the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire.

It is not known when or how exactly he died Iamblichus, probably around 330, shortly after the First Ecumenical Council and shortly before Christianity becomes the official religion of the Eastern Roman Empire. From the numerous students of the the Apameys and Sopater Aedesius, who succeeded at the Syrian School, and his disciple Aidesioy, Maximus of Ephesus, teacher of Emperor Julian. The most conspicuous but holdover of Iamblichoy is the Proclus, Successor of the Athenian School. Deeply influenced by the teachings of Iamblichoy is and the works of so-called "pseudo-Dionysios" exerted great influence on medieval Christian thought.

From the "Chaldean Theology» of Iamblichoy rescued six books: The life of Pythagoras, The Hortatory in Philosophy, On the common mathematical, On Nikomachou Numerical Gerasinoy Introduction, The Theologoymena of arithmetic and On the Egyptian Mysteries. Also, extensive excerpts from the "soul", from the letters to Makedonio and Swpatro "On Eimarmenis" and Dexippo and Swpatro "On Dialectic", they are saved in the "Anthology" of Stobaioy.

The approach of philosophy with religion expresses a movement, the Hermeticism, that gi᾽ him wondering if was philosophical system with religious overtones or, more correctly, ecstatic (monotheistic!) religion on philosophical grounds. Being placed in alexandrina years, the edge of the Greco-roman era. In Greek literature is represented by Ermin trismegiston,[Ermis trismegistos was the Greek name for the Egyptian God Thoth] a body from a variety of reasons where inside them coexist compatible or contradictory evidence from many religions. First and most important reason for the Poimandris («poimin ἀndrwn»), where the namesake God-Nous reveals secret truths about the creation of the world.



Main source of Fanis Kakridis
Educational Research Center & Institute Of Modern Greek Studies

World Biographical Dictionary, ekdotiki Athinon 1988
Diogenes Laërtius, Lives filosofw

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