We, the Alexandreis, the Antiocheis, The Seleykeis,
k ' numerous Egyptian and Syrian Greeks Epiloipoi
K ' such Mideia, and the Persidi, and others.
With them extensive territories,
With the varied drasi of thoughtful adjustments.
And the Koinin Greek Dialect
As in the Baktrianin the pigamen, as Indians.
(Excerpt from "In 200 p. X. » by. Cavafy.)
The expansion of Greeks in the world with the campaign of Alexander the great, caused profound changes in the behavior of Greeks between them and in their behavior toward other peoples. The new Greek cities of the East were Greeks from every area of the Greek world. The cohabitation of so many Greeks from different sources led to a normalisation of racial differences in language, the law, religion and customs. The meeting of the Greek and "barbarians" gained through the contacts of different elements a new quality. People had to redefine their identity which was primarily individual and no longer collective. . That is why the Hellenistic era has as main feature the atomism, While universality plays an important role in aspects of Hellenistic spirit. But at the same time, as more experience they were Greeks, the more distinguished themselves from the "barbarians" as they constitute a language section, education, the lifestyle, culture, the "Sprint" for freedom. (Gehrke H. -J. 2003:113)Though the first generations of Greeks avoided any contact with the Anatolites, later the racial mixing was inevitable. In the fall of these barriers also contributed that the Cynics and the Stoics later, created the concept of "cosmopolitanism" and claimed the brotherhood of all people. Almost one hundred years after the death of Alexander, Eratosthenes argued that it is unfair to divide people into Greeks and Barbaroys2, but they should be distinguished on the basis of virtue or malice. ((Wilcken1976:393). However, as it supports the Dihle (1998:102)the overview of Hellenistic History showed how the Greeks were divided as to the idea that they had this season for "barbarians". The "barbarians" the eilkyan and the apwthoysan, having the confidence that distinguished the Greeks had shaken. The issue of dealing with non-Greeks by Greeks during the Hellenistic period it studied in five parts. In the first part will study the two phases of ideological positioning of Alexander, the phase of faith in the superiority of the Greeks and the phase of kosmokratorias support, through a merger of peoples policy. Then I studied the Successors of policy on this issue. In the second part will examine the way in which it interpreted the Greeks the "alien", According to their own perceptions (interpraetatio Graeca). Typical of their attitude towards this is also the way I depicted. In the third part we will refer to politics hellenization followed, through the application of the common law and the language of the common use, based on the attic dialect, creating towns and religious tradition. In the fourth part refers to the philosophical systems of the Stoics and of the Greek epicurean, they attempted to support the universality of human nature, regardless of race or language of people. End, in the fifth chapter presents the odd relationships that developed among the Greeks and Egyptians, the Jews and the people of the West.
Since the sentiment of superiority of the Greeks in the ideology of kosmokratorias.
One of the emotional conditions for conducting a Panhellenic war as a continuity of the glorious tradition of the 480 p. X. , against the Persians was the sense of superiority of the Greeks against the "barbarians". The feeling that is not only based on recognised bravery shown by the Greeks during the famous descent of the Myriwn after the battle in Koynaxa to401 p. X. , but mainly in Greek science, technology, art and education. (Price 1996:466)The feeling of . superiority was the emotional background of the campaign of m. Alexandrou only during the first phase of its business. During the second phase, his undertaking is governed by the ideology of kosmokratorias. (Dihle 1998:67). The idea that exists now is that the conquest of a country with guns legitimizes the requirement of the Conqueror to enter the country in the same and in his ', like inherited property (Gehrke 2003:77). The Conqueror chrizetai absolute despot. But this idea makes problematic the relationship of despot with the Greek cities, that was political entities, default free and autonomous. A second characteristic of kosmokratorias was the religious dimension. In The East, the bully was the closest to the gods mortal, delegate their determination and sometimes the son or the embodiment of superior deity of his country. So, the literary sources testify that Egypt was conquered easily, Why does Alexander not only presented as a liberator of the Egyptians from the Persian yoke, but with prices in the Api and to other local gods won the sympathy of priests. They saw in him the defender of their prerogatives and rushed to call heir of Pharaoh (Tsimpoykidis 1989:106).
The above ideas of increasingly they were conquering kosmokratorias Alexander. The consciousness of the sacred mission and the acceptance of Eastern tradition of kosmokratorias changed his stance on the issue of dealing with "barbarians". Introduced the Persian court ceremonial for the veneration of the King, allowed officials of the Bactrian and Midias keep their resign, He married a Princess and louver made sure to become a mass wedding Macedonians-Greek with daughters Iranians aristocrats. Tried in this way the contrast between the Greeks and ' Barbarians ' to lose the status of (Dihle 1998:70). But while the monarch joined Ellinomakedonas at local dynastikes traditions, introduced at the same time new forms of organisation that caused antidraseis4. Changing orientation of Alexander in the East was a turning point in the traditional beliefs of the Greeks about the intellectual integrity of the peoples. The ancient Greek authors believed that Alexander's intention was to unite all the tribes into one and create a new one from the quality point of view people, the «Ellinoperses». But the idea of a merger was not for Alexander a conscious attempt at Union of the West with the East in a ' brotherhood, but should be interpreted, According to the Tsimpoykidi (1989:110)like Alexander's political calculation to find footholds in new areas and to facilitate the coexistence of the ruling class of Ellinomakedonwn with the domestic aristocracy of East. However, the Greek attempt to approach and non-- Greeks, remained, When Gehrke (2003:78), simple coexistence and blend any forms were rather the exception. The creation of a joint ellinopersikis ruling class never held (Walbank 1993:83) But the Kingdom remains the bright center around which thrives on political power. And although the new monarchies trying if you join new territories in their own, their interests constantly revolve around the old centre of Greek history. (What. p. ). Many historians attribute the decline of the Greeks in their contact with the eklyto and self-indulgent lifestyle that met in the East. That's why neither the Alexandrian nor the Babylonians or residents of other large cities of the East had good reputation among historians Ellinorwmaϊkoys. The Tsimpoykidis (1989:109) does not consider objective terms, Why has as basis the a priori intellectual superiority of the Greeks.
2. The conservative politics of his successors.
Alexander's plans for racial integration were abandoned after his death in Babylon. The attitude of his successors were conservative and retrograde. The boasting about their sovereignty their Asians saw native Macedonians only as nationals, without them none of the privileges of conquerors.
The lands of the Empire of Alexander were "doriktitos country" and would be inherited by successors as private property from generation to generation, creating the dynastiko rule. While in Macedonia the old patriarchal reign drew its strength from the army, He had character and epifylasse laoproblito for the King the position of primus inter pares among the noble partners, in the Kingdom of Ptolemaic Dynasty, as well as in Seleucid dominates this a limited minority foreign, The Macedonians and Greeks, which administers the indigenous population (Gehrke 2003:18, Walbank 1993:87). The dignitaries, even the King is proud to add their name to the national "Macedon". Foreigners must resign in favor of basilia5. Their satraps were those of Macedonian origin were simultaneously and the Supreme military command of their area, While coming from the native population rulers had their Macedonian military commanders next. (Bengtson 1991 :370). However, the only way to penetrate the new power system were to adopt Greek culture or to claim that it originates from Greek ancestors. (Price 1996: 464). The Greek education enjoyed extreme appreciation kind of Greeks and non-Greeks as the essential qualification for positions of prestige and influence (Easterling-Knox1994: 48, Gehrke 2003:112). The Greeks tried to keep at a distance from the indigenous Greek education that would give them access to seaxiwmata6. The Hellenistic States Governments have strengthened this trend with laws and a variety of kanonismoys7. Once at the end of the 3rd century we see in individual cases, members of local high grades be entered in the circle of educated Greeks, by placing a Greek name next to their name. In the 3rd century the domination of the Greek spirit is consolidating. From the domination of the Macedonians created the "Ecumenical" State of the Greek spirit. Of course, the world of the East did not disappear in the intellectual creation of the Greeks and were ready to be awakened to act in autonomous way once I was proper uplifter.
The Greeks tried to interpret the alien world in accordance with the Greek standards. This kind of interpretation (interpraetatio Graeca), He had a long tradition of, especially when describing exotic gods. Herodotus saw in Osiris the God Dionysus and Megasthenes equated the Krishna in the Indian Pantheon with Hercules. The interpraetatio Graeca was a philosophical foundation. It was bound up with the ideal of naturalness which wanted all the philosophical scholes8. But this tendency of Greeks to interpret the world through their own respective categories resulted in distorting the description of all who had seen and heard from the world of the "barbarians". For the educated Greek, who was confronted with foreign peoples and the quirky life, the philosophical thinking of the solvent formulation of hasty verdicts after all the philosophy was the essence of spiritual life, because the thought as the art and science of ' right livelihood ' (Dihle 1998:89-90). The specificity of this Hellenistic culture is particularly evident in ethnology and in Visual Arts, In performances of exotic peoples representatives to see portrayed with understanding and obvious sympathy, While their specific features are rendered with astonishing accuracy. Example of the paristwntai in the polemocharoi Gauls as trophies Kings of Pergamon, While it was the losers are portrayed with great accuracy, thing that shows respect to the losers. The expression of Noyboy also from Alexandria teenager shows a tendency of Hellenistic artists towards realistic depictions even of strange exotic styles (Dihle 1998:90-91).
The policy of hellenization.
The political conditions for the spread of Hellenism in the new world created by the victories of Alexander and the establishment of the Hellenistic kingdoms of the successors. Immigrants to new cities created brought with them in their new homeland language, the different ways of life and their political institutions. These cities formed the basis and the average hellenization of new conquests as the Afghanistan and India (Walbank 1993:195, Price 1996:460). What impresses, According to the Easterling- Knox (1994:46), about the Greek world during the Hellenistic period is probably the cultural omoiogeneia9 despite the huge geographical area. The first Seleucid saw themselves as a conscious policy ekmakedonismoy and promachoys a hellenization. Cities founded by Seleucus 1st reveal a conscious program ekmakedonismoy10. In the new urban centres that were established took root along with Greeks and Macedonians settlers and Greek culture. The contact with the Greek humanism, with the Greek religious faith and ways of Greek life, He left traces of the inhabitants of Western Asia and manifested in all areas of social life. But this happened mainly in urban centres, While he had minimal effect on rural areas. (Tsimpoykidis 1989:111)The 2nd century Greek names get the Babylonians and the documents are written in Greek typology. (Bengtson 1991: 372)
1. The Hellenistic common and common law.
The Greek under the form of Attica common, that exceeded the differences of old English dialects, became world ADA language of the army and bureaucracy. With localisation of the East Greek (in the form of joint) global consultation instrument was (Gehrke 2003:113-114, Price1996:463). In the East it replaced the Aramaic, that was the language of communication in the Persian Empire, creating in this way, favorable conditions for the development of a universal economic cooperation. (Bengtson 1991:318). Relative uniformity of the Greek documents throughout the Hellenistic world and the attic is the common law basis for the legal organization of the Hellenistic monarchies.
2. The establishment of cities
The Hellenistic age was immigration and colonization era. Instruments of colonization on Alexandrou were mainly mercenaries, He left behind to control strategic points, the population of the new towns of the East was a jumble of Greek of all social classes, urban culture, but remote region and. (Walbank 1993:82-83). A large number of cities founded by Alexander's successors, He continued this policy, thus laying the foundations of a special symbiosis of Greek city residents and non-Greek inhabitants of the countryside. For the past, the Greek Polis, with the theaters, bathrooms, the libraries, high schools, the matches, the festivities, It was something that alienated them from one hand, but at the same time exercised upon them an irresistible charm. ( Dihle 1998:71)Eastern traditions had no place in the Government nor in economic life. , as the Greek Polis was organized on the basis of the principles of rationalism imposed during the 4th century BC. X. , in the field of culture and science. The road to social climb for a non-- Greek necessarily passed from a social environment that the distinguished Greek culture and language. (Dihle 1998:71-72) This urban life influenced by the glow of their local populations and resulted in «aytoexellinismo». (Gehrke 2003:18)
3. Religion as a merge field of cultures
The Hellenistic period is a period of religious quests. The internal link for the Greeks of classical times existed between the State of nationality and religion begins to dissolve. WHAT, what constituted a living faith is now becoming empty type. The religion change in contract. (Bengtson 1991:389) The search of personal redemption becomes more important than the political commitment and finds new perspectives in the religious field. (Gehrke 2003:19) Maximum divinity of Hellenistic period becomes the lady luck, Goddess of blind coincidences. Asking religious satisfaction, Greeks turn to the occult teachings of the mysteries, but in a variety of styles of Oriental gods. In M. Asia, in Syria, in Mesopotamia and Egypt created religious associations involving believers of all nationalities, people connected only by their common faith and ignorant racial origin and social status. Our Eastern but the Greeks exomoiwsan gods with their own Greek gods, through the interpretation of «interpretation Graeca». Nevertheless, as if to emulate this blocked the direct receipt of foreign cults, the mingling of deities («theokrasia») only the Greeks brought near in the Eastern thriskeies12, While the Anatolites remained faithful to their old gods. According to Wilamowitz (listed in Wilcken 1976: 415): "The domination of the Greeks in the East will necessarily lead to failure, because the Greeks could not conquer their soul».
From the Greek superiority in philosophy of universality.
The philosophical teachings of Epicurus and Zenon echoed among educated and changed the spiritual physiognomy of the Hellenistic world, suggesting the value of universality instead of Greek superiority towards other peoples. In the Epikoyro13, real home is not the State, but the community of omofronoyntwn. The Epicurean community needs so only the State, as the needs of every civilized person to ensure the protection of an individual of the existence. That's why people should refrain from any political activity and to avoid all situations that could cause emotions. The true ideal was a mild friendship low-key within a limited circle. Zeno proclaimed that the city is not the real person's homeland, but the Earth, the whole world, where are people. He saw no difference between free and slave, between Greek and "barbarian". The aim of the Stoic morality was not the virtuous citizen as presented by Plato in the "State" of, but the independent and balanced individual personality. The State of Zeno had no need for institutions that was characteristic of the Greek city (temples, high schools, courts). The man was "koinwnikon zwon" and not "political" zwon, in the sense that he is a member of the universal community of all civilized people of. In Egypt the Hellenistic culture reached a long edge not only in Alexandria, but also in the rest of the country. The addition to the Alexandria Lagides and Naykrati, that already existed, founded only a new city, the Ptolemaida. As cultural centres played an important role the Greek communities that were not organized into towns and were called "constitutions". The internal colonization in different parts of the country from Macedonians and Greeks soldiers kliroychoys contributed much to the spread of Hellenistic culture. And while the native Egyptians of low social classes stayed faithful to the culture of their ancestors, the upper layers and especially the priests made use of the Greek language (Apart from the Egyptian "primary" texts we have of them and many Greek). By the end of the 3rd w. X. century began the national movement of Egyptians with score to engage the country in a long internal wars. The 2op. X. century was the blending of the inferior Greek layers with the Egyptians, creating a ellinoaigyptiako population, where the Egyptian element constantly superior. In the era of Arab domination have disappeared and the last traces of Hellenism. (Wilcken 1976: 399)
2. Greeks and Jews.
During the 2nd p. X. century created a Jewish national State, developed in contrast to Hellenism. The attempted conversion of Jerusalem in Greek Polly resulted in the revolt of the Maccabees and an oppositional attitude which, Despite localisation of the Jews in the Hellenistic segments widely-the Roman Empire, eventually led to a dissociation of Judaism from the Greek politismo14. (Wilcken 1976:395)
3. Greeks and West
The Greek culture spread in the West, not with colonies, but thanks to the inner power and international communication was ever-stronger. After the Greek influences in Carthage, the most important event was the influence of Greek culture in Rome. From mid 3rd century Rome was a growing stream of Greek education, order literature, religion, art and traditions of the Romans to accept more and more the influence of Greek culture, but at the same time preserving their language and creating their own Latin literature. So, in the time of Cicero, the Roman culture is at a higher level than the decadent Hellenistic culture of the Orient. The political apoikistiki of the Romans in the West resulted in the West to become Latin and the East to remain Greek. (Wilcken 1976:400)
Today most scholars argue that the Greek and the various local cultures, Despite their approach, didn't get to a real meshing, There emerged some new section, but there was a coexistence with interactions. (Gehrke 2003:189, Walbank 1993:84) The coexistence of cultures, however this is not an indication of a liberal pluralism. (Price 1996:464). The Greeks were unable to assimilate in depth Eastern ethnicities (Syrians, Babylwnioys, Iranioys, Egyptians) because the numeric disproportion among the first who were the Lords and the second who were archomenoi, It was always great. In addition to the large mass of the peoples of the Orient with a stubborn rigidity of the traditional culture and the language of. Unlike the Greeks and Macedonians did not remain unscathed from the alien environment, the different climate and exotic world of Oriental religions. With the dissolution of the kosmokratorias by the Romans and the start of political reaction of Oriental element when the 2nd p. X. century, started the decline of Hellenistic culture, who once was isolated from sources of ethnicity in metropolitan Greece, managed to maintain with great effort in most outbreaks of.
Georgia Chamzadaki, Bachelor's Degree ((P). & Ethn. ), Bachelor's Degree, Licence (Edu. ), M. (D). (Kids.), D. E. U. G. (Psy.) e-mail: youham@hotmail. Com
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source: Anistoriton, Tom. 8 (2010-2011) No.. 31