| Look at this tall mountain that Grandma, This wild sea that calmed down, This rising moon that fell!!


Reasons for philosophers and other scholars for the dead Mega Alexander in anonymous Ethiopic text and in the Arabian tale that lists the historian al-Tha'ālibī (961-1038 m ch.)

After consulting the Earth's surface was not considered enough for you, How can now be satisfied within this narrow box.

The Arabs of abbasidikis period istoriografoi (750-1258 m ch.) produced the image of Alexander the great in the ' perceived ' or House of ktisews the world their stories, drawing material from a variety of sources. It is likely to be raised about the heterogeneous narratives from some lower categories Arab translations of the story of Alexander the great, as the life and Deeds of Alexander the great Makedonos of Pseudo-Kallistheni in the 3rd century AD., medieval fortresses with Persian (pahlavī) texts of Bion Kings, Syriac texts, but cultural traditions and Islamic, legendary stories and comments in the eighteenth chapter of the Qur'an.

The Arabs were not istoriografoi for both the historical profile of Alexander the great, but for didactic narratives that attributed to Alexander attributes of the Envoy of God and his Prophet, the Conqueror and jewellery okratora, of General and wise King. In these narratives with contained many legendary and epinoi elements. Such a narrative is a story teller and didactic reasons by philosophers and other wise men ahead in the coffin of the deceased Alexander. Already before the end of the 10th m x. century, collections of words that speeches by philosophers ahead in dead Alexander answer and in the Syriac and Arabic Secretariat. The collections of these reasons vary and serve different purposes depending on the audience to whom they are addressed. In General, serving educational purposes.

Sometimes, their content seems to reflect the negative judgment that had already been expressed by the cynical school in antiquity for the war of conquest of the akedona King s. 1 concerning the Arabic Secretariat, must mention with that brief reasons that spoken philosophers from around the world in front at Alexander's coffin is a narrative that responds in Arabic historiographical texts of al-Ya'qūbī ((I). 897 m ch.),2 Sa'īd b. al-Bi ṭrīq ((I). 940 m ch.),3 al-Mas'ūdī ((I). 955 m ch.)4 and al-Tha'ālibī ((I). 1038 m ch.)5. .2 (al-Ya'qūbī 1969, 162-163). 3 (Sa'īd b. al-Bi ṭrīq 1906, 83-85).

V0016257 Alexander the Great, demonstrating his trust in his physicia

Extra, respective reasons philosophers respond and on following Ethiopian istories6: [1] in Ethiopian History to the death of Alexander the Makedonos anonymous th author,7 [2] in the Ethiopic translation of the story of Alexander the great from the ' universal history ' of 8285 Arab writer al-Makīn ((I). 1273-1274 m ch.),8 as well as [3] in the Ethiopic translation of the story of Alexander the great of the Arab writer Abū Shākir. 9 as stated, the Ethiopian stories come from Arabic translations of texts.

The above mentioned Arabs authors complement the narratives of "œcumenical» the stories concerning the death of Alexander with the reasons that philosophers have spoken ahead in dead Alexander. 10 looking at all the collections of the grounds of the philosophers, It must be said that it is not for akroskeleis reasons, but for a brief teaching of apoftheg, which are the last part of narratives concerning the death of Alexander the great.

The purpose of this study is a comparative examination of the reasons their speeches by philosophers in front in the dead body of Alexander, as answer [1] in the Ethiopic short narrative of the story of the death of Alexander the Makedonos anonymous th author and [2] in the narrative of the project mulūk al-akhbār Ghurar Furs wa-siyarihim ("Biographies of former la Kings of Persians") the historiographer al-Tha'ālibī arabofwnoy ((I). 1038 m ch.).

The Ethiopic tale of anonymous th author refers only to the death of Alexander and accompanied by the reasons of the philosophers. Comes from a manuscript, which is preserved in the British Museum. 11 the reasons of philosophers in the Arabic text of al-Tha'ālibī at the end of the presentation of the action and akroskeloys of Alexander's conquests. The comparison of the Arab with the Ethiopic text aims to identify the similarities and differences in the form and the content of the two texts. In this way it becomes clear the impression that give the same texts. Both the Arab narrative and the equivalent of aithopikoy have their own particular character and their own value.

The presence of certain reasons only in text of al- 4 (al-Mas'ūdī 1863, 251 -257) 5 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 450-455) 6 (Wallis Budge 1896, Introduction, iii-iv) 7 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432-435) 8 (Wallis Budge 1896, 376-380) 9 (Wallis Budge 1896, 398-401 ) 10 (Nöldeke 1890, 47-48; Brock, 205-218; Strohmaier, 167; Bühler 1941) 11 (Wallis Budge 1896, Introduction, iv) Tha ' ī ālib and the complete absence of the Ethiopian tale of anonymous th author and vice versa raises the question concerning the sources of the two texts. Sifting through the two texts, We can to make the following comments: [1] The number of grounds of philosophers and other wise men ahead in the coffin of the deceased Alexander differs in the two texts.

The Funeral Procession of Alexander the Great 1940 by André Bauchant 1873-1958

In the Ethiopic narration there are twenty-two reasons philosophers, including the reasons of Roysanak (Roxanne) and Olympic piadas. 12 al-Tha'ālibī from the other lists twenty-six reasons 13 Also philosophers., lists and words of Olympic piadas and Roysanak (Roxanne), Manager of economic, the head of Treasury, and Alexander's architectural and ageira. 14 the numeracy this difference may variously be interpreted regarding, e.g.. our writers had different sources, but may incorporate integrated reasons and from other different sources. [2] The Ethiopic narrative nominal is preparing – the following sequence – seven philosophers, quoting the contents of their reasons. It comes to Aristotle, Antiochus, the light of Fili, Plato, Diogenes, the Taro (You probably meant the Platonic philosopher Taurus) and flax (or Nilo).15 The narrative of al-Tha'ālibī gives ten reasons to specific persons, i.e. to Aristotle, Plato, the fastest Ptole, Diogenes, the Dwrotheo, Apollonius the Tyanea (Balīnās), the Toubīqā (When the Zotenberg) or Tyanea (When Rosenthal), the Democrat (When the Zotenberg) or public okrito (When Rosenthal), Socrates and Filagrio (When the Zotenberg) or Gregory (When Rosenthal).16 It is clear that there is no complete match either in names either in the order in which they are presented to deliver their word ahead to the dead.

Also, We observe that in both texts mentioned names of philosophers who lived earlier or much later than Alexander the great, e.g.. Socrates or Apollonius Tyaneys. It should be noted that Aristotle speaks first.

This is perhaps not surprising, If we take in mind that Aristotle was the teacher of Alexander the great, but the fact that all the Greek and Arabic Secretariat stresses the close relationship of Aristotle by Alexander. 12 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432-435) 13 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 450-455) 14 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 455) 15 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432-433) 16 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 450-451; Rosenthal 1975, 121 -122) [3] There are differences in the content of the reasons.

So, Comparing the Ethiopic narrative with the corresponding narrative of al-Tha'ālibī shows that the content of the reasons that the philosophers Aristotle and Plato spoken ahead in dead Alexander is different.

Concrete, in the Ethiopic narrative Aristotle States that "in the extent that there must be an end to this world, was best for Alexander to leave [the world] before [now extinct]»,17 While the text of al-Tha'ālibī attributed to Aristotle, the phrase "he's cutting edge alwtise others, peak alwtos is, and the one who killed the Kings, is dead». 18 Plato in Ethiopic narrative says "Oh, you got struck by the desire to gain the riches of others and who effectively the sygkentrwses, now carry the birth defect and the joy that was yours went to other»,19 While the narrative of al-Tha'ālibī he says "Alexander, We have moved from your recuperation» 20 Different is also the content of his words Diogenes in Ethiopic narrative and narrative of al-Tha'ālibī, IE while in Ethiopic narrative Diogenes exclaims that "Alexander fled from our ilwntas and now returned speechless»,21 in the narration of al-Diogenes Tha'ālibī says "Alexander, who was stopped in not hiding the gold, He now here is hidden in a gold» 22 [4] Also, some reasons are epainetikoi, while others are critical. Indeed, looking at the content of the grounds, We can to make certain the adopoiiseis between the reasons that compliment Alexander and the reasons that it is critical for him.


In the first category, the epainetikoys reasons for Alexander, in the Ethiopic tale of anonymous author, the following are my reasons: (a)) the ratio of light Fili, who said "Today approached the bad, which was away and the happiness that was close was lost»,23 ((b)) the reason of Taroy (Taurus;), who said "Today the transmitters of NIO takes care of the Shepherd of»,24 as well as ((c)) the reasons of three other persons who decline not tested: (c. 1) «Alexander had us with application have been referred when he was alive and now in his death teaches us wisdom», (c. 2) «Alexander 17 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) 18 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 450) 19 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) 20 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 450) 21 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) 22 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 23 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) 24 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) We never rebuked with his words as much as I did today with the silence of"and (c. 3) «Oh, people, not complaining! Alexander, but weep for yourselves".25 in his work al-Tha'ālibī, the philosophers ((a)) Aristotle and ((b)) Plato, as was seen above, express their emotions and their emotional charge for the death of Alexander 26 similar, epainetikoi reasons for Alexander could be considered and the following: ((c)) the reason of the philosopher Cesare (When the Zotenberg) or public okritoy (When Rosenthal), who exclaimed "Why don't apechthanesai this close position, After the whole world wasn't quite wide for you;»,27 as well as ((d)) the reason of Socrates, who said: «Were talking more today, today, However, teach us more"it appears that 28 these regulations aim at aforis to highlight the wisdom of Alexander, the superiority, his image as a leader and General for the kataktitiko project.

The friendly and positive to Alexander ratio of light perhaps justified Fili by the fact that in Arabic historiography, the food is presented as Fili beziris29 and consultant of Alexander. In contrast, We were talking about that both texts contain comparatively more reasons for Alexander, who have a character judgmental and sometimes content ironic for the King akedona.

In the Ethiopic narrative of my author anonymous, the reasons that emphasis deleted Alexander is as follows: ((a)) the reason of Aristotle, who said "To the extent that there must be an end to this world, was best for Alexander to leave [the world] before [now extinct]»,30 ((b)) the reason of Antiochus "The oira is to travel through his cave with him the way, in which fthanoy with this, which is not lost, and let back what is lost»,31 ((c)) the reason of Plato "Oh, you got struck by the desire to gain the riches of others and who effectively the sygkentrwses, now carry the birth defect and the joy that was yours went to other»,32 25 (Wallis Budge 1896, 433) 26 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 450) 27 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451; Rosenthal 1975, 121) 28 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 29 (Zaman et al. 2002, 185; Frye 1975, 151 ) 30 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) 31 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) 32 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) ((d)) the reason of Diogenes ' Alexander fled from our ilwntas and now returned to let speechless»,33 ((e)) Why flax (or Niloy) «Alexander, katigorithikes why sygkentrwses the riches of others, because yesterday you were the vaults for gold and today you he got placed in gold»,34 as well as ((f)) other ten reasons persons, whose names are not listed.

Going to the following related apoftheg: (f.1) «He rejoices for your death will follow, as you you followed those for whose death you were happy», (f. 2) «By ypakoya yesterday at your orders and not of astan or able to proferoy a word your ahead. But as spoken today with your front and not being able neither to hear nor us to answers», (f. 3) «This man slaughtered crowds of soldiers because of his love for the world and now is dead and left the world in other», (f. 4) «Oh, thou whose range of indignation to death, could not show your anger at the death;», (f. 5) «Those who were poor wretches because of you, It was preceded by okrati and Mong fobis, and now the wimpish between those who fear, rejoice», (f. 6) «After consulting the Earth's surface was not considered enough for you, How can now be satisfied within this narrow box;», (f. 7) «The King and the peasant are equal in death, but the death of spatial Tome of their kings (IMPS)», (f. 8) «Previously the name thy cause fear [people] and your Kingdom was of crucial importance and now the name of yours is not calculated and your Kingdom humiliated», (f. 9) «And previously poroyses to do and the good and the bad, but now I've got the power to do anything by the couple and the Almighty go of God shows mercy to him who has done all the good"and (f. 10) «Today, you did yourself in water and awesome, and now there is no one to fear".35 [5] Maybe, It is worth noting the fact that the al-Tha'ālibī mentioned the names of philosophers for certain reasons, who reasons express hostility, criticizing the unrelenting work of the deceased Alexander kataktitiko.

These reasons are attributed ((a)) the fastest Ptole, who said "See that the dream is estimated that community dissolved and how the shadow of the clouds disappeared!»,36 ((b)) on Diogenes 'Alexander, who was stopped in not to 33 (Wallis Budge 1896, 432) 34 (Wallis Budge 1896, 433) 35 (Wallis Budge 1896, 433-434) 36 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 450-451) hides the gold, now here is hidden in a gold»,37 ((c)) in Dwrotheo "How much people wish this coffin and how little they wish this located within this!»,38 ((d)) in Apollonius ' the Tyanea 'Because I could moves any of your members you that you were able to bring only the responsibility of governance peoples and countries;»,39 ((e)) in Toubīqā "This whole dominance of today does not fit, After today you're so tapeinw training» 40 and ((f)) in Filagrio "This lion used to hunt Lions, but now the same fell into the net» 41 [6] Critical and eirwnikoi for dead partners Alexander are also considered the sayings sixteen other anonymised wise in text of al-Tha'ālibī. These reasons are as follows: (I) «Everyone reaps what,What sows. Now that espeires has», (ii) «The gold ornaments are better suited to living than in attracting petha», (iii) «Have you found a calm and got relieved from the activities of this world. View now that we find calm one of the dangers of the next [World]», (iv) «What you won foneyontas so many people, since now you die so suddenly;», (v) «Don't be puzzled by Tol to when we talk about that country with your presence, now I shall direct Tol e siwpisoy with», (vi) «How sophisticated was the goal of the games and how simple is your heritage now», (vii) «Alive, proxenises many tears in humans, and now the tears being petha proxeneis training», (viii) «You were not ever so sub onetikos in bathroom, as you are now in the coffin», (ix) «In search of light of life, ises and tol to say in skoti and did you not know that I odigitheis in his coffin skoti», (x) «Synithizes to sever the asai at night in one location and to get a quick afternoon sleep in another location. Why now hedge yourself to sever appears in a unique location at night and afternoon;», (xi) «When poroyses to actions, (e) areas of the matter not to be we talk about that country with. Now that we can do we talk about that country with, actions could not», (xii) «The wind felled the tall tree. The Shepherd and the flock departed disbanded», (xiii) «Follow another King, because our own departed for a trip, which has no return», (xiv) «Now I know that you were born to die and ioyrgithikes to katastrafeis», (xv) «You have crossed the land in the length and width of in such a way that the whole ownership and efthases in the end got only four ELLs space», (xvi) 37 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 38 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 39 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 40 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 41 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451 -452) « Look at this tall mountain that Grandma, This wild sea that calmed down, This rising moon that fell!'. 42 regarding the above comments, Maybe you should epistisoy with attention to the fact that the Ethiopic narrative Aristotle and Plato to are shown through the grounds of the hostile towards Alexander, in contrast to their reasons, as found in the text of al-Tha'ālibī.


The words of Diogenes to Alexander bring to minds the critical stance that the cynical school had shown in war of conquest of the akedona King s. From the content of the above mentioned reasons we can be peranoy with that in Ethiopic narrative Alexander is criticized and is presented by the majority of philosophers as destroyer, miser, as the subject-matter which caused food and fear, that thanatwne people, but a principle is displayed and highlighted the weakness and humiliation ahead in death, as well as the loss of starters and the pantodyna, While living. Yet, It seems that he enjoys the mercy of God for the evil that caused. Similar, However, is the picture sketched for Alexander through the words of philosophers, as answer to the narration of al-Tha'ālibī.

Here, Alexander is shown as a destroyer, as a man who has caused many killings, making people to pour a lot of tears and fear him, as of onos anypo, as well as fluctuations in front of a registrant in death. It seems that what he did is ataia, Since he is not immortal and you aren't going to find a calm about everything you did. Impression causes the dictum of the European Ptole for Alexander, If we take with us into that of aios Ptole was the one who moved the body of Alexander in Egypt, with a view to legislation I sub power. 43 the reason of Apollonius of Tyanea reflects perhaps an neopythagoreia and neoplatonic visa for Alexander. [7] So in Ethiopic narrative and narrative of al-Tha'ālibī, After the reasons ahead of the philosophers in the coffin of Alexander, the reason they get the wife of Alexander, Roxane, and the mother of, the Olympic piada.

The thrinitikoi reasons of Olympic piadas, the dam of Alexander the great, and Roxanne, his wife, may be viewed as examples of reasons subversive as to dominant 42 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 452-454) 43 (Berg, 387) androkratoy system values. In the Ethiopic narrative, the decline, not named Roxanne, simply referred to as "Alexander's wife and daughter of Darius '. 44 concerning the so-called one of Alexander's wife, in the Ethiopic diabazoy narrative that she said: « Oh King, who did you missed Darius and tapeinwses as dust, I never thought that death will to conquer".45 it is average with that in the narrative of al-Tha'ālibī Alexander's wife called Roysanak. The same spoken after the mother of Alexander, the Olympic piada, saying: «I did not know that the one who defeated my father, they defeated".46 This is that the reasons in both narratives show similarities, with nontas Alexander's jewelry shop as a victorious conqueror.


The anonymous the Ethiopian tale, After Word of the woman ahead of Alexander in the dead Alexander, speaking to the mother of: «You finished the words of consolation to one for Alexander, which of fobo and now it happened not to have us remain in a victorious King. He conquered the world before we conquer you, that's why attribute justice to yourselves. Now I accept your words of consolation» 47 she emphasizes the project's kataktitiko, calling him a "victorious King", Noting that there is no other that suits this characterisation. Urges philosophers to be fair with themselves, implying presumably that have err in their judgements on the basis of what Alexander said about him.


It should be noted that in al-Tha'ālibī, the mother of Alexander, which shall specify procedures not, speaks the first word's mournful in order, saying: «Loved my son ene, matter and to wait here for you when or astan so far away from each other, as far as the East is from the West. Now that you're closer to a than,what my shadow, in here to atisa peri» 48 reason does not display common elements with the corresponding reason inherent in Ethiopic narrative. The words of the Olympic piadas reflect all the tenderness that a mother turns to her son. She doesn't have to hope something now that her son is lying in front of the dead. [8] Only in the text of al-Tha'ālibī there are three additional reasons that they are spoken ahead in dead Alexander from the administrator of the economic, the head of the Treasury and the national architectural ageira. The Manager of Finance says: «With 44 (Wallis Budge 1896, 434) 45 (Wallis Budge 1896, 434) 46 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 454) 47 (Wallis Budge 1896, 434-435) 48 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 454) dietaxes to accumulate money and now paradineis to the other ones that I gathered for you». The controller of the Exchequer says: «To the keys of your chests. Ordered so get rid of them, before held responsible for something, which belongs to you and which I did not». End, the ageiras member of the master says: «Couches are fitted in their seats. The headrests have run-in. The tables have been prepared, but I do not see the Council posiarcho'. 49 these reasons they are spoken with the above order immediately after the word of Roysanak.

The selection and addition of such price aforis by alTha'ālibī was likely to intersperse the whole narrative with the choice of three favourite people. From the content of the reasons Lily with that going for the sake of people who are loyal to Alexander and obey the commands of the, even now that he is married petha. These persons seem to surround Alexander respecting, Recognizing the importance and the primacy of. [9] It should be noted that average there are some parallel sayings between the Ethiopian text for Alexander's death and in the corresponding text of al-Tha'ālibī. ((a)) This is the so-called a philosopher's decline may not be prepared, who said "By ypakoya yesterday at your orders and not of astan or able to proferoy a word in front of yours. But as spoken today with your front and not being able neither to hear nor us to answers"that answers the Ethiopic text,50 and the phrase "Don't be puzzled by Tol to when we talk about that country with your presence, now I shall direct Tol e siwpisoy with"they answered in al-Tha'ālibī. 51 ((b)) Also, the reason that speaks the Linos (or Nilos) in the Ethiopic narrative, i.e. "Alexander, katigorithikes why sygkentrwses the riches of others, because yesterday you were the vaults for gold and today you he got placed in a gold ' 52 displays similarities to the reason of Diogenes in text of al-Tha'ālibī "Alexander, who was stopped in not hiding the gold, now here is hidden in a gold'. 53 ((c)) Extra, the reason that delivers anonymous ND wise in the Ethiopic text, who says features "After consulting the Earth's surface was not considered enough for you, How can now be satisfied within this narrow box;» 54 seems verbally with the 49 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 454) 50 (Wallis Budge 1896, 433) 51 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 452) 52 (Wallis Budge 1896, 433) 53 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 54 (Wallis Budge 1896, 434) reason of the Democrat (When the Zotenberg) or public okritoy (When Rosenthal), as answered in the narration of al-Tha'ālibī: « Why don't apechthanesai this close position, After the whole world wasn't quite wide for you;'. 55 these figures combined with the similarity in so-called one of Roysanak, lead to the conclusion that in the case of the text of al-Tha'ālibī, the relationship with the Ethiopian tradition is clear.

Augustus Caesar venerates the mummy of Alexander in 30BC by Showmer

Eikazoy that the Tha'ālibī al-Renaissance period followed an independent integrated translated in Arabic Syriac text, which was then in Ethiopian.

Because, a number of these grounds is extant in Syriac manuscript independent of the ythistori a. 56 should paratirisoy that reason philosophers and other scholars for the dead do not occur in the Great Alexander swzo added Syriac translation of the ythistori of Pseudo-Kallistheni the 7th m x. century. Hence, the Ethiopian story has similarities with al-Tha'ālibī must derive from a common (Arabic) source. You don't need, However, to apokleisoy the possibility that the Arabs istoriografoi, or their archetypo, raised the particular narrative of the grounds of the philosophers from other Arab sources and more specifically from a project the same thematic who joined the Arab sofiologiki Secretariat.

One such project was the "philosophers ' systems Apoftheg (Nawādir al-Falāsifa) that translated into Arabic the nestorianos doctor and Ḥunayn ibn etafrastis Is ḥāq ((I). 873 m ch.). This book contains apoftheg and delivered legally attributed to philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Diogenes and other.

The third eros57 of the book consists of twelve chapters that are listed in the last days, the death and funeral of Alexander. The content of most short s grounds of philosophers ahead in dead Alexander in the study texts refers to the sense of life and death. It is rather for own systems or apoftheg, the various forms which form an a small literary work. 58 Maybe their background comes from the Greek and Syriac Christian tradition.

The apoftheg of the philosophers is an important narrative for the dissemination of the image of Alexander as a ' philosopher '. 59 the philosophical pattern which is 55 (al-Tha'ālibī 1900, 451) 56 (Brock, 205-209; Doufikar-Aerts 1999, 61 -75). 57 (Badawi 1985, 87 k. on.; Fahd, 30-31 ) 58 (Nöldeke 1890, 48) 59 (Bekkum, 225-226) (n) sofiologiki iaitera frequent in Secretariat,60 i.e. to aforis which philosophers have spoken sequentially ahead in dead Alexander.

The reasons of the philosophers in front in the coffin of Alexander compare inability towards the death of the previous power and egaloprepeia, refer to the a peprw, the fragility of human nature and the ataiotita of operations and aspirations in this dastardly world. 61 it should be pointed out that ANU in the project akhb ār mulūk Ghurar al-Furs wa-al-Tha'ālibī siyarihim diakrina with certain narratives included in the thematic of "wisdom". These are narratives referred: ((a)) in campaigns where Alexander accompanied by philosophers and sages, ((b)) at Alexander's talks with non-current assets minus short-term liabilities anes sages for key philosophical issues, e.g.. the sense of life and the question of immortality, ((c)) in meeting with an Indian philosopher, They discussed philosophical issues, ((d)) in a onologo for a philosophical reflection around the death and ((e)) in general the comments that Alexander estimates preferred philosophy and philosophers, benefit from the lessons of Aristotle, acting in accordance with the principles and followed the advice of.

From the above, it becomes clear that the relationship between Alexander and philosophy seem to operate on two levels in the Arabic tradition. One level is the historical, which focuses on Alexander's relationship with his teacher Aristotle.

The other is the convenient, where the idea of philosophy spreading and Alexander criticized. It is also known that in the cynical tradition, Alexander is shown as a weak and bad character. 62 Also, Arab writers generally priority was the promotion of a specific idea of philosophy who chanced to be associated with the work of the kataktitiko King akedona.

To archetype of apoftheg speeches and from philosophers ahead in dead Alexander was identified by the epistolary Grignaschi of a ythistori. He considered that the study of the content of apoftheg and deserves special attention, because it reflects the negative judgment that the cynical school had yielded to the war of conquest by King akedona. 63 60 (Gutas 1975; Gutas 49-86) 61 (Southgate, 281 ) 62 (Cary 1956, 80-98; Tarn, 41 -70) 63 (Grignaschi, 205) In conclusion, the reasons of philosophers and other scholars for Alexander the great, both in Ethiopic narrative and in the Arabic text of al-Tha'ālibī refer to the fact that death is inevitable, even for the great Conqueror and jewellery okratora acquired all goods and treasures of the Earth. Most of them refer to the sense of life and death or in luck, the fragility of human nature, the people's ataiodoxia and the inability in front to death.

In other words, the reasons are stated in the texts having the character of a moral and their purpose is teaching. The total of these spoken words in honour of a commander it seems that large not only people of power but also the wider readership of these writers.


  • Badawi, Αbdurrahman: Ḥunain ibn Is ḥāq, Ādāb al-Falāsifa (Sentences des Philosophes). Éditions de l'Institut des Manuscrits Arabes 1985.
  • Bekkum, Wout Jac. Van: "Alexander the Great in Medieval Hebrew Literature". Journal of theWarburg and Courtauld Institutes 49 (1986): 218-226.
  • Berg, Beverly: "An Early Source of the Alexander Romance". Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 14 (1973): 381-387.
  • Brock, Sebastian: "The Laments of the Philosophers over Alexander in Syriac". Journal of Semitic Studies 15 (1970): 205-218.
  • Bühler, Curt F.: The Dicts and Sayings of the Philosophers. Oxford University Press 1941.
  • Cary, George: The Medieval Alexander. Cambridge University Press 1956.
  • Doufikar – Aerts, Faustina: "' Les derniers jours d'Alexandre' dans un roman populaire arabe: un miroir du roman syriaque du Pseudo-Callisthène ". In: C. Reynaud, Alexandre le Grand dans les littératures occidentales et proche orientales. Actes du Colloque 27-29 novembre 1997. Paris: Université Paris X-Nanterre 1999: 61-75.
  • Fahd, Τoufic: "La version arabe du Roman d'Alexandre". Graeco-Arabica 4 (1991): 25-31.
  • Frye, Richard N.: The Golden Age ofPersia. Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1975.
  • Grignaschi, Mario: "La figure d'Alexandre chez les Arabes et sa genèse". Arabic sciences and Philosophy 3 (1993): 205-234.
  • Gutas, Dimitri: Greek Wisdom Literature in Arabic Translation. A Study of the Graeco-Arabic Gnomologia. American Oriental Society 1975.
  • Gutas, Dimitri: "Classical Arabic Wisdom Literature: Nature and Scope ". Journal of the American Oriental Society 101.1 (1981): 49-86.
  • Al-Mas ' ūdī: Abū'l- Ḥasan ' Alī b. al- Ḥusayn: Murūj al-dhahab wa ma ' ādin al-jawhar. C. B. de Meynard and P. de Courteille (eds), Les prairies d'or. Volume 2. Imprimerie Impériale 1863.
  • Nöldeke, Theodor: "Beiträge zur Geschichte des Alexanderromans". In: Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophische-Historische Classe 38. Wien: F. Tempsky 1890: 1-56.
  • Rosenthal, Franz: The Classical Heritage in Islam. Transl. by E. and J. Marmorstein. University of California Press 1975.
  • Sa ' īd b. al-Bi ṭrīq: Kitāb al-Ta'rīkh (Naím al-jawhar). L. Cheikho (ed.), Εutychii Patriarchae Alexandrini Annales, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 50 (Scriptores Arabici ser. 3 nos. 6). Volume 1. Peters 1906.
  • Southgate, Minoo S.: "Portrait of Alexander in Persian Alexander-Romances of the Islamic Era". Journal of the American Oriental Society 97.3 (1977): 278-284.
  • Strohmaier, Gotthard: "Ḥunain ibn Is ḥāq: An Arab Scholar Translating into Syriac ". ARAM Periodical 3 (1991): 163-170.
  • Tarn, William Woodthorpe: "Alexander, Cynics and Stoics ". American Journal of Philology 60 (1939): 41-70.
  • Αl-Tha ' ālibī, Abū Man ṣūr ' Abd al-Malik b. Mu ḥammad b. Ismā ʽ īl: Ghurar akhbār mulūk alFurs wa-siyarihim. H. Zotenberg (ed.), Histoire des Rois des Perses. Imprimerie nationale 1900.
  • Wallis Budge, Ernest Alfred: The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, Being a Series of Translations of the Ethiopic Histories of Alexander by the Pseudo-Callisthenes and Other Writers. C. J. Clay and Sons 1896.
  • Αl-ya'qūbī, Abū'l-Abbās A ḥmad b. Abī You ʽ qūb b. Ja'far b. Wahb b. Wā ḍi ḥ: Ta'rīkh. M. Th.houtsma (ed.), Historiae. Volume 1. E. J. Brill 1969.
  • Zaman, Muhammad Qaim et al.: "Wazīr". In: Encyclopaedia of Islam. Second Edition. Εd. By P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Volume 11. Leiden: E. J. Brill 2002: 185-197.
  • Ζαµπάκη, Θεοδώρα: Alexander: Η εικόνα του στην πρώιµη αραβική ιστοριογραφία. Kyriakidis Brothers Publishing House a. e. 2006

Theodora And paki Ga, Dr. Ellinoarabikwn Studies, Faculty, University Of Ioannina. This study is a result of broader research on the image of the great esaiwniki in Arabic Alexandrou Secretariat. E-mail: 1 (Ζαµπάκη 2006, 1 33)

© 2015, Copyright: All rights reserved. Allow the republication of the content on this website provided that the source is clearly stated.

Leave a Reply