The ἀrchaiotero, on the 2.500 e.g., Parliament in the world, is it ἀnakalyfthike by ystera ekeino to systimatikes and polyeteis ἀnaskafes of Italikis Of Ἀrchaiologikis in Poliochni, Lemnos ........... However, the Parliament of Poliochne, as is known, ἀpotelese public building aggregations of inhabitants and precursor of the imoy Ekklisias of Ki ochi τῶν simerinwn Parliaments. The construction, are kept in elegant dome, accompanied by information on the part of the Istoriko-canéda simantikou ἀrchaiologikou area.

The eforos Klasikwn Ἀrchaiotitwn Nomou Lesbos and Chairman of Ellinwn τῶν Ἀglaia Enwsis Archeologists Ἀrchontidoy ἀnefere home simantikwtera historical stoicheia, it connected with the ἀrchaioteri wrganwmeni city of Eyrwpis, the Poliochni, "The Poliochne is the best example of that period called" Trwikos and Politismos ' becomes more simantiki ἀkoma, ochi is a wrganwmeni why only city with streets, public areas, with exairetikes Idiwtikes oIkies, with dioikitika and exairetes housing centers, the ἀpodidontai and opoies in ἀrchigoys in ἀrchigo of Poliochne, But why in this the city already from the 3000 e.g.. and until the 1600 e.g.. leitoyrgei ὁ ἀrchaioteros chwros dialogue in World. Edw was born in semen of dialogue, the sperm are today onomazoyme Republic emeis.»
itan chwros when residents of the dialegontan between the, syzitwntas home city of public issues. Synepws itan not Parliament (Conference ἀntiproswpwn), but of the imoy Ekklisia (olwn Congress of politwn).

Poliochni is an archaeological site on the eastern shore of Lemnos, near kaminia, built at the dawn of the Neolithic period to the Aegean, the 4th or 5th Millennium BC. Located directly opposite Troy but Troy will be built one thousand years later, When I anymore poliochni will have evolved into an urban settlement with 1.500 residents with rectangular stone houses, protective wall, squares, Wells, streets, public buildings and Parliament.
Poliochni came to light by the excavations of the Italian archaeological School of Athens, headed by then Director of Della Seta (Della Seta) the 1930 and key aide of excavator Bernabo Brea. Along with Troy, located on opposite coasts, is the most famous Acropolis of the 3rd millennium b.c.. throughout the Northern Aegean.
Surrounded by walls, you have commanding form only on the West side, where was greater by the need to protect the Foundation from erosion of nearby river. It seems indeed that poliochni, at least at the beginning, We do not need military defence. The city flourished a Pacific population thousand inhabitants, They delved into during the day with agriculture and animal husbandry, While the evening return to settlement, thing they do even today farmers of the region. This habit must have been created between them a form of rudimentary social organization, the wording, i.e., common rules have to be respected in the city, but out of this, the common fields or to those who may have been granted by the community to each family nucleus.
The digging of wells, built with investment, in depth reached over 9 measures, the construction and maintenance of the walls, roads and pipelines to collect the rainwater, flooring squares where meet residents to spend their free time or on the occasion of feasts, It was all measures taken, demanded a total agreement and a place where they could discuss and make decisions. For this purpose built in Poliochni called Deputies.
Thanks to the processing and handling of metals poliochni, built just across the Strait of the Hellespont, He was the oldest urban center, in Europe's first commercial port. Was the heart of the region of b. Aegean.
The ruins of Poliochne demonstrate that in b.. Aegean developed a prehistoric culture completely autonomous from them till now known (Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean).
The Bouleuterion
Right after the main entrance, on the Western side of the wall that surrounds the city, found a great Chamber with its stone benches along its entire length and pitch of speech in the Center, that is probably the strongest indication that there was a democratic organization of society then. Prof. Santo Tine (Santo Tine) who is the Director of excavations in Poliochne writes:
"Named deputies immediately based on the example of buildings of the classical era that had those levels at which, Unlike the theaters and auditoriums, could take place a limited number of persons: the representatives of the community of citizens. "
The Parliament of Poliochne except that precedes almost 2000 years from their counterparts of the classical era, It also represents the oldest testimony in Europe and in the world, a construction suitable to accommodate people who had been called to discuss the problems of the whole and to determine the common cultural and religious norms. In "this way can be considered the forerunner of the House of our time.
The drainage of the yellow period and in depth public well
The Mansion
The mansion 605 built around 2000 e.g.. He sees in the central square and was the home of the richest and most powerful in relation to all other common citizens who continued to reside in houses very simple and with limited articulation. The Parliament had lost its original function anymore so that the East benches had disappeared with the construction of a wall. These are all signs that make clear the fact that democratic power in Poliochni was replaced by an authoritarian.
The gold treasure of Poliochni at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
The treasure of Poliochne
Inter alia in Poliochni found a treasure of gold jewelry, that is an exquisite sample of advanced and power accumulation goldsmiths and wealth on the island. The thesaurus is very similar to the famous "Priam's Treasure" found in Troy the Schliemann and looks that made from the same workshop. Today the treasure of Poliochne is at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens the end of town after successive seismic disasters will come 400 years before the destruction of Troy of Priam, around 1600 e.g..
The main Barn of the blue period
The periods of the city
Poliochni dubbed "eptapolis" why anaskaftikan seven consecutive cities in seven successive layers. Each is more advanced technologically than the previous and it appears mainly in the manufacture of vessels. That is why the Brea Bernabo named according to their color, betrayed and their perfection: Black, Kyani, Green, Red, Yellow, Brown (or Gray) and Violet.
Some of them correspond to periods of civilization of Troy. Than,What seems, the two adjacent cultures had little to do and parallel evolution. Though, the first period of Poliochne has no counterpart in Troy, but it is Premier of this. And as they evolve both poliochni remains increasingly thriving and richer than modern of Troy.

Poliochni I (Black 3500-3200 e.g.)
Black (or Black) period of Poliochne, the prehistoric town discovered in Eastern Lemnos, near kaminia, dubbed the first phase of the city, the proastiki, corresponding to the period 3500-3200 e.g.. According to the dating of the Italian archaeological School of Athens. proastiki phase of Poliochne is long and includes many layers. Farmers and ranchers inhabitants live in large oval or circular huts as diameter and 7 m., which were reconstructed many times on stone foundations. Their settlement was located in the middle of a hill and had an area of about 5 acres.
Residents construct vessels darkening, from which derives the name of the, decorated with fine lines, Recalling as well. Not even aware of the copper. Their tools are stone and bone and are quite sophisticated. We are at the last Neolithic period, shortly before the invasion of new technology of metals.
In addition to the settlement, residents there and in the surrounding rural region, as can be seen from three ftwchikoys tombs found 1930-31 under Avenue or Holy Trinity, close to Poliochni. Chronologically belong on the verge between black and blue period. Interestingly enough, there were found fragments of white marble figurines kykladikwn, something that indicates early contacts with the South Aegean before the creation of Poliochne.
The same period in the rest of Lemnos human activity has been detected only in Myrina and is of a similar cultural level. Troy still no. In the area of Trwadas there is only one Neolithic village in present-day Kum Tepe.
Poliochni II (Kyani 3200-2700 e.g.)
The Blue period of Poliochne, the prehistoric town discovered in Eastern Lemnos, near kaminia, It is the second phase of the city and is the first season that the townspeople know copper. Divided into two subperiods: the archaic (3200-3000 e.g.) and the Advanced (3000-2700 e.g.), According to the dating of the Italian archaeological School of Athens.
H knowledge of copper helped in the rapid development of the city. It is not excluded that Troy was created from the need of peoples of Asia minor to have a port for communicating with the peoples of the Aegean and Thrace, but with Poliochni, that was the intermediate station of the Thracians and of honor Aegean during their outings to the Black Sea.
Quickly from the small village with oval Kalyvia comes in an advanced state of Azure Poliochne. She initially has arched and later rectangular houses and is fortified with a whopping wall stairs both by land and by sea. This means that the rich residents feared enemy attacks.
The city is constantly expanding inland, westward. Apply the "linear" urban system, IE built construction islets (districts) unequal size. This period formed the two districts of Metalworkers, which will be maintained as the yellow period.
The city's population reaches 800 residents. Built new, most spacious wall, to cover the new districts. What we feared its inhabitants; The locals inland or external Limnioys Raiders-pirates; Rather both. Maybe some oppression to the rural population of the island, not yet possessed the knowledge of copper, to create reactions at times.
The same period in Lemnos there are a large number of settlements, over 15, the strongest of which were on Koukonesi and Myrina. Certainly among them will have been periods of peace but also periods of intense competition. Therefore the existence of defensive wall is fully justified. A fire, which destroyed a part of the city in the middle of the period (around 3000 e.g.), perhaps due to some sort of RAID.
Advanced stage (3000-2700 e.g.)
However after the fire the city life evolves dramatically, so the blue period divided into archaic and sophisticated. Impression make great public buildings, the Barn and the House of Parliament, manufactured in the last phase of the blue period, the most advanced.
This is a pioneering public constructions, apparently shared, leading thinking in forms of democratic political organization. To make the bold assumption that the fire that destroyed the archaic Kyani Poliochni came from some revolt, the result of which was to acquire more ' democratic ' face in the next phase; Unfortunately there is no evidence to substantiate this view.
The city has gained bronze machining workshops, to which manufactured mostly nails (needles), hooks and chisels. At the same time kept and traditional stone, bone and pottery tools, which could not yet be replace. From these we learn that wove and egnethan wool (found sfontylia and bobs), katergazontan wood (found hammers, stabbing, knives, hinges, saws, razors etc.), stored and processed foods before the Cook (found flails, mortars, ovens and clay vessels of various types: pitchers, boiling pans, jugs, mugs, froytieres etc.), cultivated cereals (found sickles from Flint). The clay still coined by hand, since they were unaware of the wheel. The end of the Cyan Poliochne was steep, After a flood destroyed the city.
Proportions of this period of Poliochne found with Troy j, hot Lesbos, Emporio of Chios, with settlements in Thessaly and Viotia. Therefore, There was some form of contact between the residents of the two shores of the Aegean.
Certainly poliochni had a good intermediate position in this maritime communication, which certainly exploit. Later myths (e.g.. the argonautic expedition) show that memories of the Greeks were elements of communication.
The rapid development of the town shows great commercial activity and apparently shipping.
Among the buildings found in Poliochni blue there is a period which was characterized as a Bouleuterion. According to Professor and researcher of the Aegean Christo Douma, There was the first and oldest Parliament in Europe.
The Xr. Doumas argued that residents of Poliochne had developed advanced forms of social organisation which may qualify as the earliest forms of democracy. Specifically distinguished two classes of inhabitants in the city. Farmers-farmers and craftspeople-traders. The latter can be divided into four "guilds": Metalworkers, the builders (carpenters), Mariners (merchants) and keramoyrgoys (potters).
The class of artisans had however more economic and therefore political power, but never managed a Guild to dominate on the other. So were forced to find forms of cooperation such, that only democracy offers. The existence of a building, which was a capacity 50 about people and that only as a place of Assembly can be classified, confirms the above thoughts. Therefore, is not overwhelming the rating of this building as a Bouleuterion.
So, the Republic was born in Poliochne; Archaeological clues lead effortlessly in this conclusion. Though it may not be assertive in this issue, It is true that the oldest building which could be characterized as a Bouleuterion was built there, located on the seafront of Poliochne, before 4.500 years.
Poliochni III (Green 2700-2600 e.g.)
The Green Poliochni evolved into big city. It has an area of 13-15 acres and a population of around 1300 residents. The residences of consisted of two or more rooms and were relatively uniform. Metallurgists dwelled in a separate quarter. new wall Built in the West to accommodate new homes, which means that the population of the city rose, perhaps from new residents. Though, the technique shows signs of decline, While there is a large amount of pottery imported from mainland Greece. An earthquake halted development of little town. Moreover, this period did not last more than a century. Feature is that the Parliament changes using this period and a part is covered by a newer building. The ' democratic ' period seems to be coming to an end.
Poliochni IV (Red 2600-2400 e.g.) contemporary of Troy I
During this period the city expanded across the Western side of the Hill, sample of financial soundness of its inhabitants. As it expands and the wall, boosted with semicircular bastions. The technique of construction improved, but the aesthetic began to decay, After the well-being of their residents permits to import, Despite making utensils. The decoration of ceramics is simplest and most massive production. There is a more pronounced influence of prwtoelladikwn cultural centers and is an established contact with Crete, the Cyclades, Boeotia and Thessaly.
The copper processing industry has improved, having found bronze knives, chisels, nails with head, hooks and mainly molds manufacturing tools with the groundbreaking method of molten wax. For the first time found stone ynia from plow, which means that systematically worked the land.
Trade becomes more organized anymore, as evidenced by clay and bronze seals with which mark the goods. Also, There are weights of Hematite, by weighing the goods. The weights are imported from Asia minor and the Aegean Sea. This means that standard weights were and there were obviously and local stone striving copies.
The existence of imported and pilot stations, indicates that as early as the 3rd millennium b.c.. He had seen the need for a common metric system among the various cities, to facilitate transactions. Or that traders of Poliochne ought to know the metrics of other cities which had trade.
During this period the society of the city seems to have changed the Organization and created economic classes. The Parliament is now in disuse, While the position of almost uniform houses of earlier periods are getting large buildings, mansions, led by the so called "Mansions", which either belong to rulers of the city or have a public character, because xanakataskeyazontai later. Also, There are many weapons, We reveal a political society.
The Red Poliochni was devastated by fire twice. The second fact marks the end of this season and the start of the next, the so-called Yellow.
Poliochni V (Yellow 2400-2100 e.g.) contemporary of Troy II
The Yellow Poliochni is most flourishing period in the history of this city. Corresponds to the also very developed Troy II-III. The two cities have identical alliloepireazomenoys cultures, but the technique of Poliochne is more advanced.
Tranotero example of the relationship between the two cities is the gold treasure of Poliochne, that is proportional to the treasure of Priam, discovered by Schliemann in Troy. The jewels have lots of carvings of fine craftsmanship, evoke the austerity of archaic Greek style but also have local influences. Pins, the earrings, the rings, the bracelets, necklaces and other elaborate jewelry show that has not been detached from Poliochni others aigaiopelagitikoys cultures but a quirky piece of the, a variation.
But there are other common between Poliochne and prwtoelladikwn settlements, They suggest that the accepted poliochni effect of Asia minor populations, Use this knowledge, that coupled with its geographic position gave her wealth and power, But while its inhabitants have maintained traditional Aegean culturally information. This shows omogenon with of the Greek element.
Aside from the simplicity of decoration this is shown by the fact that no temples while little devotional items (around 20 bone figurines). This is not random. The Greeks in the Aegean had other religious ideas. One temple or shrine is not found in Greece in this period. In contrast to Eastern Nations have already appeared the first Holy. Also, Perhaps it is no coincidence, that has never been the necropolis of Poliochne. The "prwtoelladika" cemeteries are also poorly. Only two tefrodoches with ashes fallen found, sample that may burn their dead.
The yellow period new pottery techniques arrived in town from the Greek culture centers. Poliochni is widening and other and occupies an area of almost two hectares. Efforts are being made to social organization. Created public spaces, residency, paved roads, squares, etc.. The wide streets there are large houses with auxiliary spaces, While smaller alleys, sample social inequalities.
Built public wells, pipelines of water supply and drainage system (small sewer).
The city's population is currently estimated at 600-800 residents. Market exists around the main paved road, which apparently come as the Inland Limnioi, and foreign merchants from the sea.
The pottery has been improved. Used a new mixture of clay and blood vessels are better. To build them using the revolutionary technique of wheel. Distinguished two classes of vessels: the daily, that is simpler and more durable and official, that is thinner, more brittle and more elaborately decorated. Feature is the famous amfikypello depas, stating later Homer.
General, the pots are very different from the older. Manufactured colanders, kitchen sinks (boiling pans with hydrant), large jars with a variety of decorative items and with various types of handles. Also, Bronze spearheads, hooks, nails etc. Still used and some bone tools, like needles, knives etc.. which means that, Despite the long-term use of copper for 600 and now years, some objects are still irreplaceable.
The thriving town had a tragic end. Around 2100 was flattened by a massive earthquake. The destruction was so terrible, so the city was abandoned by its inhabitants, who did not come back nor to collect valuable objects, left in ruins, among the gold jewelry. At least two residents have been victims of this earthquake, After kataplakwmenoi found from the ruins of a mansion, near the exit.
After this disaster the Poliochne never again will gain its former glory. Most inhabitants probably moved to Koukonesi, who knows a particular peak during the next period, the so-called Brown.
Poliochni VI (Brown 2100-1700 e.g.) modern Troy V
At the end of the yellow period, in 2100 e.g.. about, poliochni suffered great destruction by earthquake. Then the city began timidly back to grow. Previously it was believed that deserted for long period, but new excavations show that it was inhabited at least on top of the Hill. Not built new buildings, I just repaired the old.
Young(;) residents know the use of the wheel in pottery, proof that no eh-have cultural setback. So the designs and the quality of the vessels were improved. The city has contacts with both Troy IV-V and notio aigaio. But slowly declined and did not know the commercial heyday of older seasons.
This period is the culmination of Koukonesi development and probably has taken the baton from Poliochni as commercial station for those coming to the island.
Poliochni VII (Violet 1700-1400 e.g.) contemporary of Troy VI
The Violet Poliochni didn't show anything new cultural. Is influenced by the Kritomykinaϊko culture, as is evident from the existence of a number of vessels.
Certainly the myths about the Cretan in origin King of Lemnos, the Thoas and Thessalian origin woman of Myrina have some historical background, that corresponds to this season. Some Alliance between the Minoans and Minywn must have been over sovereignty in Lemnos.
However the weight Centre of life on the island has now shifted on Koukonesi, that this time has been a great acne. It is certain that the decline of Poliochne contributed to this development.
source: ellinondiktyo


A marvel of Antiquity

The lighthouse of Alexandria is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Constructed in the 3rd century b.c.. and remained in operation until the complete destruction of two earthquakes in the 14th century a.d.. It was a tower totaling 140 measures and it was about that time the tallest human edifice in the world after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre's or Chefrenis.

Constructed from pieces of white stone and was structured in four levels. The lowest was the square base, the second was a square building, the third octagonal building and the fourth tallest a circular building on the top of which the statue of Poseidon or Apollo. The fourth level there was a mirror that reflected the sunlight during the day while at night it burned a flame to warn ships of the existence of obstacles.
The word beacon has been adopted by many countries and was widely used in Latin vocabulary and in languages such as French (phare), the Italian (faro), Portuguese (farol) and Spanish (faro).


The lighthouse was constructed on the Island Lighthouse. The island gave its name to the building and not the other way round, as believed. Modern lighthouses “borrow” also the name of the island. It is universally known by the name “Lighthouse” of Alexandria because they were just outside the port of Alexandria. Was artificially with a sort of bridge, the so-called Eptastadio (had, true to its name, length of seven stages) and formed a part of the port of Alexandria.

Because the configuration of the port and the region was flat and without some sign to warn ships, It served to give some kind of flasher for the approach to the port. The lighthouse was built by the engineer Swstrato Knidio, Architect, son of architect Dexifanoys who had also built the stage “Tetra” of Alexandria, the 282 e.g., While initially the study of the project was launched on the reign of the first King of the Hellenistic period, Ptolemy the’ of Egypt, General of Alexander the great.

The Lighthouse is a long narrow island, too close to shore and forming m this port with two spouts "in the Northwestern arm of the Egyptian Delta, Strabo tells us.

The name of the island, Lighthouse, It is likely that gave to Pharaoh, their name. On that island, in mythology, resided Proteus. The first port facility there was formed by Tuthmosis Iii around 1460 e.g.. to serve trade with Crete. Later in the reign of Ptolemy the Filadelfoy built stone bridge, the Eptastadion, so named because the length was seven stages (1300 m. about) and connecting the island with the beach of Alexandria.

«… at the end of the island, "continues Strabo" there is a rock, It is washed by the sea. On the rock is a multilevel tower built wondrous from white marble bearing the same name with the island. "

The tower that, brought to an apartment fire and made for the salvation of the ships especially during night surfing. Since the word "Lighthouse" indicates each marine crisp evenings pyrsoforo Tower illuminates, leads and especially warns sailors and their ships do not fall into the rough stuff, as shoals or shallow waters, as with Strabo describes the Island Lighthouse, or reefs, in sly pitfalls etc.

A mechanical and technological marvel

Amazing feat remains the passage of time the building of the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria, both constructional and technological. Fair classified in seven wonders. From ancient authors description of our rescue Strabo (Geographically, 17.1. 6-10) and Pliny (Natural history 36.83). It was built during the period of Ptolemy II of Filadelfoy by the famous architect Swstrato the Knidio, the Dexifanoys and its construction lasted twelve years.

The name "Lighthouse" took her from the homonymous islet Lighthouse located at the entrance of the harbour of the city. Its original name was "pyroforos Tower", but known as Lighthouse stayed and from this tow their well-known shipping beacons. It didn't take long to identify with the city itself and when you say "Lighthouse" they meant the Alexandria. The total amount reached the 140 m.(!) and was built in four levels.
The first, EUR 71 measures, It was the tallest of all. It was square, pierced by Windows, and around – around there were numerous rooms where engineers were housed and keepers. In the Center there was a hydraulic mechanism , with the help which were the various supplies and fuels of turret. The second section, on the first, It was octagonal, filled with helical stairs, and the third, on the second, It was circular, adorned with columns.
In the last section to the top was the mechanism that reflected light. There was so much fire, and sensitive organs that reflected many miles away (300 stages). Many reports talk about a weird "mirror", which cause admiration more than the building and not ragize.
Some say it was from glass, other than transparent processed stone, and when sitting underneath, could see ships at sea that were not visible to the naked eye. We did here a first telescope; Everything is possible. And it was only one reflector or there were many; Unfortunately the information we have is incomplete.

Also many artworks with Automation: A statue of finger followed the trajectory of the Sun during the day (What was it about the night;) another one that meant hours of day with varied and melodic voices, and another who gave the slogan of alarm when enemy fleet that was not yet visible. See here many automated applications, hydraulic organs, mirrors etc.

A brilliant tradition in application, a construction feat that implement the technological standards of its time. The Arab conquerors excited from the Lighthouse, They called him "El-Manara», gave his name to the tall buildings of their religion, known as minarets. In Greek literature is lacking and such interesting topic. Very few elements give us the Greek authors.
There are of course incomplete entries of encyclopedias and only three foreign language studies have been translated into Greek and referred to the lighthouse. Foreign language studies there are of course many and I can not mention, but it is worth noting that there is great interest in the matter after the French newspaper le Figaro published an article titled "found the lighthouse of Alexandria" where istoroyntan investigations and discoveries of French archaeologists in Alexandria.

The Construction

The construction of high-rise building, the lighthouse, You probably started the 297 e.g.. at the time of Ptolemy the Savior's direct (305-282 e.g.), or the 283/2 e.g. According to a later chronicler Eysebio, Bishop of Caesarea, and ended in the reign of Ptolemy Ii, of Filadelfoy (284-246 e.g.).

Ancient writers, such as Strabo, Pliny the elder, Poseidippus and Lucian of samosata (115-180 a.d.) inform us that the construction of the lighthouse was commissioned to the architect and engineer, equivalent of Archimidous, the Swstrato of Dexifanoys from Knidos (City of Caria and headquarters of the Doric Hexapolis), who was also a friend of Kings Ptolemy (a) and (b). The Swstrato assigned lodges of the Temple of Aphrodite at Knidos, the "pendant" peripatitirion, and the subjugation of Memfidos without siege, but with simple diversion of the waters of the Nile.

According to Lucian, sostratus, After building built, wrote his name on this, and the name of the Reigning. Sostratus who report, possibly identical with an Ambassador of Ptolemy Ii, of Filadelfoy, Delos. However there is no indication.

The lighthouse of Alexandria is one of the seven wonders of antiquity, illuminating the voyage of ships for about 1500 years. It started being built in 280 e.g., year in which Rhodes egkainiazotan the famous Colossus. Was stoplight and worked night and day, a lamp for the ancients, Lantern for modern. Had height 140 measures and its light was visible from a distance 47 with 50 km.

Official, the first Ptolemy was the son of Macedon nobleman Lagoy. That is why Lagidwn dynasty called the Royal clan of Egypt that started with him and was lost with Cleopatra. Informally, though, everyone in Macedonia knew that Ptolemy was only one of the hidden feats of King Philip, illegitimate son of arsinoe, and therefore half-brother of Stretched. Besides, the name Arsinoe was playing in Palace of Egypt almost as much as the name Ptolemy Kings.

A Arsinoe, daughter of the first Ptolemy, murdered her husband, Lysimachus, King of Thrace, to marry her brother, King of Egypt, He got rid of his first wife, Arsinoe and this. Another married the brother of Ptolemy I also (the fourth), by whom was murdered. And yet another was Diane's sister Arsinoe who placed Julius Caesar to outplay, in order to not have prospective antapaitites to the throne.

He, though, the first Ptolemy was beautiful and andreio lad, sympolemistis of Alexander the great and head of the swmatofylakis. Became Commander of Egypt, When in 323 e.g.. stratilatis died. In the wild years, He participated in the wars of the successors and, the 301 e.g., He was on the winning side after the decisive battle of Ipsus, where he, kassandros, Seleucus and lysimachus discomfited the Antigonus.

Of the living Egypt, which was already King of the 305 e.g.. Proved worthy of the throne, He got the nickname Soter, protected letters and the arts and built the famous library of Alexandria, with a million volumes in the glories of, and the Museum, where stay free and philosophers working together, sages and poets. He died in 283 e.g..

The second Ptolemy, He got rid of his wife to marry his sister, Arsinoe, stayed in history with the nickname Philadelphus, precisely for this option. The adikoysan, though.

Protect the letters and the arts equally effective, like his father, and it was he who funded the erection of the lighthouse of Alexandria, work that Ptolemy first had captured but did not live to see its completion. Father and son, Besides, they were the ones who put strong foundations to flourish and develop to the fullest the "Alexandrian era", Although subsequent Ptolemies, with a few exceptions, proved incompetent, degenerate and bloodthirsty.

Ptolemy II was the father of symbasilias the 285 e.g.. and autocrat of the 283 e.g.. The next time (282 e.g.) inaugurated the impressive stage of Alexandria (the said ' Tetra '), It was constructed by architect Dexifanis. His son was also architect, Sostratus, contracted to erect the lighthouse of Alexandria.

Ptolemy had banned to "sign" his work (so he put his name hidden) or he was too modest. WHAT,What to happen, a carved inscription at the base of the project, top layer of plaster, reported as a manufacturer of Lighthouse Tolomeo. Beneath the plaster, another inscription stated the following:

(Sostratus Knidios, his son Dexifanoys, {the devotes} the rescuers Gods in favour of vessels).

The Island Lighthouse is located just outside the port of Alexandria and was artificially with it thanks to a construction, known as Eptastadion (' seven stages ' length or 1.288 measures). The edifice was built with white stones on the edge of the island, so the sea surrounds it from the West and North side of.

According to the description of the Arab traveler Abu Yousef El Chagkagk Ibn Antaloysi, We visited in 1165, but also various depictions of the lighthouse on imperial coinage, cups, Mosaic etc we that the building was square, with approximately 8,5 each side measures. The building consisted of four levels (linked together by joints by pencil) starting with a base on which edrazotan:

The base had a height 6,5 measures on the part of the land (from the side of the sea was taller) and was square with each side length 8,5 measures. A ramp onto 16 arches, length approx. 183 measures, lead, the walls of the island, the elevated building portal. The height of the first floor from the ground was approximately sixty meters (ή 57,73 m. According to the Arab).

Newts or other sea gods, they were blowing trumpets or sea shells decorate the corners of the top of the first floor. The second level was a square building, with Newts to adorn the corners of, According to representation in Roman currency. Onto it, He had built an octagon (third level) building, with circle around it. On it he had built the cylindrical fourth level, on top of which had erected statue of the God Neptune (or of Apollo).
At this level was adjusted a giant mirror that sent the rays of the Sun on the sea, in order to be visible from far away. At night, a flame replace beams. The whole structure had a height 140 m. from across the sea. Inside there were galleries and a slightly sloping ramp with low steps, that lead as the top and used for carrying animal materials of fire on the roof. Completed in 270 e.g., twelve years after he began the erection of.

The second floor was octagonal with length of each side 18,30 m. and a height of approximately 30 m (ή 27,45 m.) The third floor was cylindrical with a diameter, According to the Arab 75,20 m. and height 7.32 m. At the top there was a proper statue of Zeus Sotiros about 5 measures, who brandishes lightning in his left hand and sceptre or Trident on the right. To him was dedicated the lighthouse.

Jupiter replaced, αργότερα, a mosque. According to some coins, at the top shows the Neptune who with his left hand clutching Trident, While with his right showed the sea.
The Tower exceeded the 100 measures. Approaching the 120 m. about. The wall had a thickness between 1,5 and 2 m. and you must clean the brickwork of the statements. Each floor stood out with a different length and height barrier. There were approximately 68 rooms, one of which rather lead underground to the sea. All apartments have at least one rectangle (or circular against others) window.
The entrance of the tower is said to lay low at the base but there is also the version, that is considered more accurate, the door was taller. on top of a scale which was based on a series of 16 curved arches.

The guiding light of the lighthouse must be released from the last level (cylindrical) or the top floor of the building. However the most ancient testimonies seem to agree that the fire which burned stood at the base of the Tower.

The fire that, as the most reasonably capable, real and practical material, for the season, that must be the firm, among other modern cases should be considered the dried manure, which burned in basis and with anaklwntan mirrors as the top of the building. The light of the lighthouse, According to Josephus in on the Jewish War, become visible at a distance 300 stages, i.e. about 55 km, or even exceeded by 10 times, According to Lucian. Pliny tells us that the whole construction cost 800 talanta.
In about the same position, According to Ifaistionos's letter to the Governor of the city Kleomeni, appears to predates fanoforos Tower much smaller dimensions already from the time of m. Alexandrou.

Near the Lighthouse there was a sanctuary of Isis Farias or Eidotheis, which bred in the farms of the eleusinian coast Tritwnwn. The sanctuary was converted into a church of Raphael, which survived until the 15 century. According to Eustathios ypomnimatisti him of Dionysiou, the Lighthouse was still except the lighthouse and a Antifaros, the location of which is unknown, as well as the tombs of Osiridos and of Eidotheis of Proteos.

The time was unforgiving in this miracle. The upper and middle part of were destroyed until the 90 a.d. In 500 a.d. about and on Emperor Anastasios the quay and the foundations were gradually destroyed by the sea therefore commissioned architect Ammonium repair, and he performed with the above.

The first start of the lighthouse was the earthquake of 796 and the second one in the 1303. The 1303 the lighthouse of Alexandria works for last time.

Bore even twenty years, as every time they were repairing the damage. On the 874 a.d. Ahmed Toyloyn empn, proceeded to repair the top, repair which was probably the last one that accepted the pyrsoforos Tower. With the weather, Alexandria lost commercial glamour and the port abandoned. With them and the lighthouse. Though, the earthquake of 1324 collapsed and the basis.

That year, the Arab Ibn Mpatoysa did not manage to get into the rubble of. The Emir of Egypt, Kait Veis, When 15 century, who demolished completely the lighthouse, found useful the remnants and used, in 1480 and in place of, with his own materials, He built an Islamic fortress with Navy lighthouse at the same time.
The fortress still survives, and the region is military and inaccessible. It was said that minarets on mosques of Egypt followed the architectural design of the lighthouse.


The lighthouse were three marble towers, built on a foundation of stone ogkolithoys. The first tower was four-sided and contained apartments for the workers and soldiers. From up there was a second octagonal, with spiral ramp that led to the last Tower.


The last Tower had a cylindrical shape and inside the burned the fire that drove the ships safely to port. From the top there's the statue of Zeus the Savior. The total height of the lighthouse was 117 measures.


For maintenance of fire they needed huge amounts of combustible. The powered by Woods, They carried thanks to the spiral ramp horses and mules. Behind the fire there were brass sheets that reflected the brilliance of the sea. Ships could distinguish from 50 km away. During the twelfth a.d. century the port of Alexandria was filled by mud and ships ceased to use it. The lighthouse fell into disuse. Possibly sheets of brass rear clawed and were made currencies.

Many reports talk about a strange mirror glass, or transparent processed stone through this could see ships at sea, that was not visible to the naked eye (something like a telescope).
Seeing that the lighthouse outside of the admirer of construction, many applications include automatic mechanisms, hydraulic organs, mirrors etc , samples of the technological era. There are many references to works of art with automation as a statue that his finger followed the trajectory of the Sun during the day, another one that meant hours of day with varied and melodic voices, another who gave the slogan of alarm when enemy fleet, that was not yet visible.

H Complete

After the unexpected and unexpected death of Alexander the great Ptolemy declared himself King of the huge Empire, who created the Alexander the 305 e.g.. During the period of his reign started and the construction of this megaloyrgimatos but didn't managed to see it completed after he died in 283 e.g.. His son, Ptolemy’ Philadelphus, saw the project be completed twelve years from the commencement of the building 270 e.g..

After the pyramids of Egypt, the lighthouse of Alexandria is the longest duration monument of the region, they managed to rescued to the almost complete destruction of three earthquakes that took place in 796 e.g., the 1303 and the 1323 a.d. The 1323 was the year, that the Arab visitor impn Batuta couldn't enter the lighthouse from the many ruins were gathered.
The 1480 a.d. the Sultan of Egypt, Kait-mpeis, use the remaining ruins by dragging them to the castle building on the same site, on the Foundation of the lighthouse. But this Fort even though it had been renovated in the early 19th century. It was demolished by the English in 1882.
The function of the lighthouse

In the Center there was a hydraulic mechanism with the help of which were various supplies and fuels of turret. The second section, It was octagonal, filled with stairs and the third, It was circular, adorned with columns. In the last section on top was the mechanism that reflected light.

There was so much fire and sensitive organs while the day the spectators in the sky a great column of smoke that reflected many miles away (300 stages). From the top there's the statue of Zeus Sotiros.

Many reports talk about a strange mirror glass, or transparent processed stone through this could see ships at sea, that was not visible to the naked eye (something like a telescope).

Seeing that the lighthouse outside of the admirer of construction, many applications include automatic mechanisms, hydraulic organs, mirrors etc , samples of the technological era.

There are many references to works of art with automation as a statue that his finger followed the trajectory of the Sun during the day, another one that meant hours of day with varied and melodic voices, another who gave the slogan of alarm when enemy fleet, that was not yet visible. For maintenance of fire needed enormous amounts of fuel.

The powered by Woods, carrying thanks to the spiral ramp horses and mules. Ships could distinguish from 50 km away. During the twelfth century the port of Alexandria was filled by mud and ships ceased to use it.

The lighthouse fell into disuse. Possibly sheets of bronze mirror clawed and were made currencies. During the fourteenth century an earthquake destroyed the lighthouse. A few years later the Muslims used the materials for the construction of a fortress. The Fort it was reconstructed and is still in place, the first lighthouse in the world.


It all started in the early 90s, When huge blocks of concrete were thrown into the sea, in the Eastern harbor of Alexandria, to fend off the waves of the Mediterranean, the fortress built on the island the Lighthouse 1477 the Mameluk Sultan Kaϊt-Bey, on the Foundation of the ancient lighthouse.

Asma H cinematographer travels back El. Bakri shuddered at the sight of boulders that threatened to bury forever an important part of global historical heritage. The boulders were “sit” on Antiquities.

So, in October 1994, six French and six Egyptians divers started the underwater surveys for identifying and recording parts of monuments and buildings of ancient Alexandria. Sphinxes, Obelisks, and statues-Giants testify past a brighter economic, cultural and religious centre of the Mediterranean. Many of the artfully sculpted stones were parts of one of the Seven Wonders of antiquity, the lighthouse of Alexandria.

What do we know truth, for’ This edifice, that for centuries was the stigma of the city and drove safely the ships at the port of; From the time of Homer (8St p. X. century) and maybe by older, the Small Island Lighthouse, with the natural port of, used by foreign traders as a safe station for ships en route to the Kanwbiko arm of the Nile, where meeting Egyptians merchants who were down the great river.

H town of Alexandria was founded in 331 p. X. from Alexander the great and, Boasting a privileged position, began to evolve quickly. Two, though, were the problems faced by the calling of the Mediterranean ferries: the low shores that help find port and the shoals around the Island Lighthouse that tsakizan when was Tempest.

O childhood friend of Alexander and Commander of Ptolemeus A’ He realized quickly that they needed a tall structure and any mechanism that would make it easier for ships to locate the city and brought into port safely. The building was constructed on the Island Lighthouse, from which they get their name since the lighthouses.

H construction of the lighthouse began in 285 p. X. around and finished 279 p. X. The testimonies of historians differ as to the amount of. O most reliable calculation based on luminescence. O Jewish historian Josephus mentions that the lighthouse was visible from a distance 300 stages, i.e. 30 current nautical miles.

From this we conclude that the height must have been approximately 150 measures. Arab testimonies give us a picture of the three-storey lighthouse. The ground floor was marble with a square floor plan, the first floor with octagonal and the second with circular. From the top stood the light source and atop a statue of Poseidon, EUR 7 measures.

The ground floor of the building had several Windows and included 300 about rooms for the guards and technicians, and large warehouses for woods that burned the lighthouse. In the center of the edifice there was vertical stairway with two helical ramps, wide enough to pass a loaded animal, and some mechanical provisions that put Woods at the top of. The stairs had plenty of natural lighting from skylights exterior walls.

From narratives of the season, We know that the lighthouse had a mirror was used to reflect a flame from ritinoycha Woods. The day the lighthouse looked mostly from tobacco. Some narratives describe the mirror as if it were made of glass and even in hollow shape. O legend says that, When koitazes in the mirror of the lighthouse, you could see ships were too far away and not look to the naked eye. Or that the mirror could gather sunlight and burn enemy ships from long distance.

It is said, that Archimedes had designed the optical device the strobe. O lighthouse was more wondrous machines. At the top of the Tower, the statue of Neptune had a complex mechanism, that allowed it to rotate and anebokatebazei hand showing the position of the Sun day night.
Another statue announce with melodic tones of the day, as the clocks of medieval monasteries that had no dials and indicators. It is said still, There was the statue of a Triton sound loud alarm the moment someone enemy fleet lifted anchor, even though it was days away, While other Newts brought trumpets that with their sound helped ships approaching the port when there was mist.

All this will seem incredibly if you hadn't saved up today a currency of the time of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, depicting the statue of Neptune and the Tritons. Sixteen centuries withstood the lighthouse the high seas in the high seas and frequent large earthquakes.

They had repeatedly made efforts to repair the damage and maintenance of this great edifice until the first half of the 14th century, so was completely destroyed on’ because rather, strong earthquake. So, the “tracks” one of the Seven Wonders of the World strewn on the seabed in the sea Alexandrinis, to come back to light in our days.

Photographic Material

Amphipolis. gr | “Historic vitamin injection” Alexander the great

“Historic vitamin injection for this identity crisis” featuring a reference to Mega Alexander the Assistant Professor of the Department of history and Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hassan Badawi, speaking to Ana – EIA for the situation in Greece, the crisis facing and deficit values found.

In the light of Greek history, indicates that the reproduction of brilliant moments of the past is necessary luxury to illumine the dark present. In an effort to convey a clear note of optimism, believes that optimism is a key condition for success and cost nothing and explains why the Ministry of education is the real Defence Ministry of a country…

On the occasion of the celebration of the “Alexandreiwn 2015” from the International Foundation Alexander the great, in Litochoro Pierias, Mr. Badawi stated on the face of Alexander the great and why he is best known in history as a statesman and as stratilatis.

“Alexander made two conquests at the same time: in the East He won the bankrupt regimes that ceased to meet the needs of their societies and the hearts of oppressed peoples from their own regimes. This managed through the respect of their own identity, their own tradition, their beliefs, forms of worship and the participation of local customs and traditions as a sign of acceptance and respect for each other. This was the greatness. The winner to share the “is” the conquered and recognizes the existence of” mentioned features.

At the same time clarifies that from contemporary culture absent the criterion of the acceptance of the other, What was the basis of philosophy of Alexander and opening through “his visit to the Temple of Amun in Thebes, Egypt, through the proposal of mixed marriages himself and his generals with the women of the Persian Empire, through his attitude towards invocation – request of the Indian King Porus who was a aichmalwtos of”.

With clear allusions to the present situation of the country, Mr. Badawi stressed that “the reference to Alexander is a historic vitamin injection for this identity crisis” and stresses that “ever the amount, Neither the numerical reality of a society or a nation can not determine the fate and the future of”.

Instead, “What determines the future of a nation is confident, is the brilliant past which illuminate the weak and unstable present, is the example of Alexander the great who has been accepted by all peoples of the world as a national hero of all peoples. All of gladly provide their own identity and for the assets as a political and as a commander. (E)is the determination of our relationship with each other that determines the tendency towards unity or separation”.

At this point talks about the role of education, pointing out that the philosophy of the Grand political man was a product of the education received by Aristotle. “So was politician and strategist with clear vision, because without clear purpose there is no success” reports and stresses that from the political environment in which we live there are universal values, which has lead to self-destruction.

“Modern civilization boasts producing weapons of mass destruction and make international reports of weapons of mass destruction. This is due to the shortage of education, that is the only institution that can implant in mental territory a society the timeless human values that provide value to the user, the man society. This is the unique shield of society. What's missing from education is not information but is the reason for the transfer of messages and arguments that form the true identity of a society or a nation. And this is why the Ministry of education is the real Department of Defense of a country. In the face of such a situation should in General be always optimists. Optimism is a key condition for success and nothing because everything,What is worth never costs” mentioned features.

About the Organization of this year's “Alexandreiwn” reports that Guest country is Egypt and notes that Greece and Egypt share common universal values, the root of which is lost in the infinity of time. “It is perhaps the only countries in the timelessness of their relations always maintain a harmony, a mutual support, an intercultural consensus, a solidarity” says.

Explaining the reasons why this happens, the finds in the presence of epigonwn of Alexander the great in Egypt, Greek Macedonians, the Ptolemaic Dynasty, in which liability for the fact that the Egypt gained a second cultural identity, the Mediterranean identity.

“Thanks to Greek Macedonians, the Ptolemies, the Greek language was official organ of expression of Egypt for over a thousand years, i.e. by the end of the 4th BC. century until the beginning of the 11th century ad. and complementary partnerships with the Arabic language. This historical property relations remain undisturbed until today. This may be attributed to the public historic depth because the historical depth of a people is a guarantee of solidity and solidarity with alike peoples or neighbors” Adds.

Source: ABE | The myth of Oedipus and the Sphinx – The hidden secrets

The myth of Oedipus and the Sphinx – The hidden secrets

The Sphinx is a fantastic creature of Greek mythology,closely connected with the legend of Labdakidwn and in particular to that of Oedipus. The representation used in insured premises as symbols of protection in Egyptian, Greek and Roman culture.

According to Hesiod was the daughter of tisChimairas and others of Matins or Tyfwnos and echidnas.. The Echidna had spawned also Cerberus Orthros (keeper of flocks of Seizing), the lion of Nemea, the Lernaean Hydra and the Faia Krommywnas. The accord also Chimera, the Dragon of Colchis, the guardian of the Golden Fleece, the dragon that fyloyse the golden apples of the Hesperides and the Eagle of Prometheus.

Greek representations of the Sphinx is represented as a winged lion with a woman's head (In contrast to the Sphinx in Egypt, He has no wings) or as a woman with feet & breasts lion , erpetoykai tail feathers of bird. Its name comes from the word clinch.

The sirens recognize from the bird's body,the human head,the feet and claws are strong and thick and can paromoiastoyn like the lion. This suggests perhaps a kinship that can exist between Seirinos and Sfingos.

The irakai Mars sent from home, the Ancient Thiva. There stood and asked passersby what being the morning standing on all fours, noon at two and three night;». Anyone who couldn't solve the puzzle, the Sphinx the esfigge, until I die. Oedipus solved the Riddle by answering that the creature that is man, Since when is baby walks on all fours, After he gets up on his two legs and in old age walks erect but uses as third leg a of Spades. Once solved the Sphinx ainigma shattered by a rock that was standing and was killed. However, the exact riddle that gave the Sphinx is not known from ancient sources, but from later texts.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: topic Sphinx(mythology),the Wiktionary entry is associated with this entry: Sphinx(mythology).There is another version for the Sphinx which presents Pausanias. According to Pausanias, the Sphinx was illegitimate daughter of Laius. The Laios entrusted only the Oracle took from Pythia and reported that it concerned only the Jocasta and the fruits of. That's because the guys had and Laios concubines, having eschewed the commingling of the Jocasta. But in one of his dream girl slept with his wife and born Oedipus.

So, Although abandoned Oedipus in Kithairon, keeping his reservations, When one of the sons was claiming the throne was sending him to the Sphinx. This with the puzzle of examing whether they were genuine children of Laius. Because knowledge of the Oracle were only those who descended from the Royal generation, those who could not answer the riddle of thanatwnontan.

Oedipus before meet the Sphinx had learned about the puzzle in his sleep. So was able to solve.
The asteroid 896 Sfigx (896 Sphinx), who discovered the 1918, It took its name from the Sphinx of Egypt.

The Oidippoys

Oedipus (ARC: OIdipoys) It was the most tragic face of ancient Greek mythology. He was the son of King Laius of Thebes and Jocasta. The legend is as follows :

Before the birth of Oedipus King of Thebes Laios, He decided to learn his fate on the acquisition of the successor, because his wife, the Jocasta or Epikasti, had no surrogate mother ever, Despite years of efforts. The Apollo loxias of indicated, via Pythia, How would son and that he would kill him.

It must be said that he was one of the rare oracles that were both clear about their content. Also it should be noted that the Laios had caused the mini of the gods for the relationship that concluded with another man, his son Pelops, King of Elis, the Chrysippo suicide Chrysippou in Thebes, where had him kidnap the Laios, caused the fierceness of Pelops, who cursed himself the King of Thebes to acquire son and if he does die by his hand. The gods agreed, When other Juno,After the action was an insult to the laws.

The Laios, having knowledge of the chrismodotima, After the birth of her eldest, strapped Oedipus by foot (Hence the name Oedipus (edema(= swelling) + therelevant(= foot)) and gave him an slave, which ordered to leave him ektheto in Kithairon. In this way enapothete the fate of the infant in the hands of the gods or fate, as tragedy ' exclaims Oedipus Rex of Sophocles ' the hero himself. A shepherd but she found the boy and delivered to his wife the King of Corinth Polyboy, the Merope or Periboea. Those not having kids, the accepted as "boon". Thus Oedipus lives and grows in the palaces of Corinth, in the town of Tenea, as genuine and legitimate heir to the throne.

One day somebody called him "bastard". Wanting to learn the true speech, because "silence" prevailed in the Palace for the topic, He decides to go to the Pythia. There the priestess of Apollo, with clear Oracle banishes him from the sacred site because it will look omoklinos of father and patroktonos, aimomiktis and husband of his mother, and that he and his children will cause many bad. Such was the intensity of the event, that Oedipus, forgetting the reasons of proseleysis in Pythia, decides not to turn in the alleged in’ This home, Corinth in order not to cause suffering to really foster parents.

During his wanderings in Greece,headed toward Thebes. A crossroads of, the triple with the name ' Schisti road», meets a trolley and after an intense wrangling kills the owner of trolley and attendants – slaves of, In addition to a. As it turns out later, with testimony of slave saved, Oedipus killed his father Laio, who headed towards the Pythia to learn what happened to his child.

Oedipus approaching in Thebes he met the Sphinx. The Sphinx was killing every passer-by who meet, because it did not address the puzzle of. Asking the Oedipus ' What being the morning standing on all fours, noon at two and three night», received as a response to "man is that being, the dawning of his life moves on all fours, the night of his life in three, with the help of a cane, While in the meantime (noon) of life moves with confidence in two ". After the solution of the puzzle the Sphinx fell on the cliff and killed (or when other Oedipus of attacking when he was startled by the solution of the puzzle and killed). Oedipus became King of Thebes, from the temporary city King Creon, and husband of Jocasta (sister of Creon), widow of Laius and Oedipus's mother.

By Jocasta had four children, Polynices and Eteocles them and Antigone and Ismene, that was also his brothers. This concluded the contents of the Oracle Pythia gave the Laio first and in Oedipus later. There is another testimonial, When Jocasta learned that married her son and committed suicide. Oedipus remarried and his new wife, the Eyryganeia, He obtained his four children.

"The plague of Thebes", the work of Charles François Zalamper, Museum Of Fine Arts, Marseille Because of the famine that ravaged Thiva, for seven years (as the years power of Oedipus), Oracle of the Seer Tiresias, He suggested that the cause of evil is the slayer of Laius.

In tragedy "Odipoys Tyrant" unfolding the revelation of the killer, that resulted in the aytotyflwsi of Oedipus and Jocasta's suicide (Hung). In Sophocles, "Oedipus at colonus", Learn how Oedipus, Once again, wandered in Greece, to escort his daughter Ismene or, When other, the Antigone. Ended up in Athens, where the King of, Theseus, the accepted and passed to his reconciliation with the gods and the redemptive death. "The tragedy seven against Thebes», by Aeschylus, We learn the fate of Polynices, of Eteocles and Creon. While, end, in tragedy "Antigone", the crested tragedies, We learn about the fate of the heroine.

The myth of Oedipus is part of the "Thibaikoy circle".

The secrets of the Sphinx

A few meters away from the great pyramid of Giza (Cheopos) is the famous Sphinx of Egypt that has head woman, Bull's body, feet lontarioy and Eagle's wings. But what is the feasibility of its own existence within the Sphinx, under the feet of the great pyramid and what is;

Let's take things from scratch. Sphinxes are generally in the mythology of various monsters that members of the body are composed of various one beings. Were wild monsters, silent and enigmatic. Such sgigges in antiquity there were in different parts of the then known world and were surrounded with various mythological stories. In ancient Greece it was known the Sphinx of Viotia had face and breasts woman, House lion, chicken wings and tail snake.

Mythology says that he was born from the Echidna and Typhon or orthron and was sitting in Dr Fikion, where he waited there for those of whom put the known famous Riddle : "What estin everything, a depositor's voice, tetrapoyn and dipoyn and tripoyn gignetai;"and if the next diavates as he was not found the solution katetrwge.

It is said that from there once passed and Oedipus and met with the Sphinx, that put him into the same conundrum. Oedipus gave the correct answer: “' O Man!”.. and the Sphinx from the evil fell into precipice and killed.

All the Sphinxes are characterized by the qualities of the Slinky (He who hides the thought of) and ainigmatwdoys. Therefore, the Sphinx of Giza pyramids of Egypt should be seen in terms of what hides this thought and what Riddle gives us. If you do not possess these two skills then there ought to be a Sphinx.

In his book Tom Valentine "The mystery of the great pyramid" describes inter alia the following: "Many are those who believe that the Sphinx was built by members of the secret organization and that there is a mystic link between the enigmatic Sphinx and great pyramid». First of’ everything is absolutely certain that the Sphinx would built people and even memyimenoi from the circle of ierateiwn. That apogoreyotane to the Pharaoh to enter inside the great pyramid is absolutely certain and fully justified, but not in terms of infestation of the religious sentiment of the people, but for the protection of life itself of Pharaoh. And this why the Egyptian priesthood knew very well the energy behaviour of the Interior of the pyramid, they knew that is that in the King's Hall was realised by a mass loss – energy (Prana) from every living organism that would come in, just as it has revealed Pythagoras for the energy pyramid phenomena.

The same happened in years, When the then head of State of the Soviet Union Kroytsef visited the great pyramid and did not dare to enter, After insistent and demanding intelligence recommendations of his country. Also the author of the book "the Pharaoh's pump» Edward Kankl argues that the Sphinx was used as a secondary pump, When closest to the river. This view is in syschetimo with all hydraulic system that describes to find how lifting large ogkolithwn for the construction of the pyramid is quite reasonable, But if it is true it is not the root cause of the existence of the Sphinx but is a subsidiary possibility. All these conclusions and external events as well as other views that saw the light of day, not only did we illuminate the riddle, but further complicate us the real truth.

Let's see another Visual issue

I'll start my thinking with the assumptions that the Sphinx conceals a secret and gives us a riddle to find the solution and that the Sphinx of Giza the Bolivian people by the restricted environment of ierateiwn who was privy to the esoteric secrets of.

When I say the Sphinx the built, I mean of course the idea of construction conceived and implemented on the ground and not that they worked as labourers for the kataskei of, thing and it still not excluded for reasons of secrecy.

Once the idea, the thought came out of the memyimena members of the ierateiwn should have used the known only support occult language. The occult ieratikos code using various divination and especially the Oracle of Delphi, was the code of arithmolexias and not arithmosofias.

So applying the priestly code of the Oracle of Delphi to the word "Sfigx" we find the secret that encloses within the Sphinx. Specifically, we find that the numerical value of the phrase "Sfigx" is the code number 781 that corresponds to the numerical value of the phrase "Pan". So The SPHINX = PLUS EVERYTHING = 781 , where the phrases tonisma indicates the word "numeric value". Hence the apocryphal secret that encloses within the Sphinx is the "Pan" which comes from the current UNIVERSE, because as known in ancient times was not the word universe in single format, which was later converted the letter (n) before the letter (p) in (m) just as with the word plus-player – Playmate. Also this proof that the great pyramid of Egypt represents the universe with all laws of our creation has become very apodeixi Pythagoras. From this combined with the apokalyfthen secret of the Sphinx comes out the conclusion that the Sphinx has a direct link with the great pyramid and is the prometwpi of.

In addition to the secret that has inside of the Sphinx asks us to find the solution and an Enigma. This riddle comes from the form of, i.e. : "That man and Taurus and Ierax and Leon syneisi;”. In today's translation we can say the riddle above as follows : "Where coexist and man and the bull and the lion and the Eagle;». Obviously exist in the image of the Egyptian Sphinx depicting the Universe. ERGO plus iparchoyn in the universe or the Universe consists of these 4 items. Yet these 4 elements of the ancient Greeks the exomoiwnan corresponding to the four elements of nature's format, i.e. NERO (LIQUID), EARTH (CONTRIBUTIONS to the LATER), AERAS (GASES) AND FIRE (ACTION). Also the same symbols and coexist in the cardinal points, i.e. respectively in North man (Water), in the East the bull (Earth), in the West the Eagle (Air) and in the South the Leo (Fire). In other words, the solution to the Enigma of the Sphinx in Egypt is that the Universe consists of four data formats, the wet form, solid forms, gas form and anergeiakis form. Thus conclude that the solution to the Enigma requires first to find the secret of which is ' SYM PAN "and then there is the solution of the Enigma that is the ' PLUS ' PANTI.

On the above four styles of elements of nature as presented in the Sphinx and mentioned by the ancient Greek sages with symbolism Man/Water, Taurus/Earth, Eagle/Air, and Leo/Fire we observe that the notations used in these Christian religion. In Orthodox Christian churches are represented the four evangelists Matthew, Marcus, Luke and John each with one of the above four symbols-elements. Indeed the depiction of evangelists is on the surface of the four columns that hold the dome of the Church. I.e. we conclude that there is a full match in the revelation of own truths. But in the book of revelation of Evangelist dibazoyme exactly the same mystical and transcendent truth : « …. and in the midst of the throne and the circuit of the throne four animals gemonta eyes front and rear, and the first not seeking zwon leonti, and secondly not seeking zwon moscho and the third operator of the prosopon zwon as man and the fourth zwon aetw not seeking petomenw”. | The background a visit ...

Amfipoli copy

Vangelis Stolaki

The look and the interest of other ... borders and more specifically in Europe and shift the mechanisms responsible for the archaeological excavation in Amphipolis Katerina Peristeri, realizing that with the new political leadership of the Ministry of culture will not ... off the edge. And this, because the Deputy Minister has made it clear that it will not provide extra money for continued excavation work, While the information they want to think about replacing both the k. Peristeri and her group in an attempt to "shake off" from the monument ... «samariki» aura. At the same time, Ms. Peristeri is seeking to find other donors, mostly European programmes after the ... tap the public for Amphipolis has been closed since last Jan.

The visit of members of the Committee on culture and education of the European Parliament with the participation of Greek MEPs and MPs in tumulus Kasta, After her ... the koystwdias rocked the calm waters of Amphipolis. It should be noted that in recent months except members and Nikos Xydakis the tumulus, that from August 2014 had become "first issue" in all Greek and foreign SMES visited and Patriarch Bartholomew. All this after call Katerina Peristeri, the archaeologist who after her collaboration with Lina Mendoni, and Anna Panagiotarea attempts to ... pull in the excavation of the spotlight, in order to press the Government of SYRIZA to finance. Not stay in the position of head of excavation, According to information, has to do with the fact that Ms. Peristeri maintains friendly relations with all Serraioys members, between them and with the Deputy Minister of Macedonia- Thrace Maria Kollia Tsaroucha, which reportedly spoke to Ms. Xydakis with the best words for ' Katerina ' as he calls.


Europe go ... tumulus Kasta!

For this reason, in an effort to return the topic in Ms. Peristeri accepted the request of the Committee on culture and education of the European Parliament and "hosted" the tomb of, delegation which participated and the President of the Commission, Silvia Costa. The head of the excavation even, He stressed that the European Commission will help in any way the continued excavation. "It's very much the thrill. Is too impressive the quality and level of find. It is our duty to be able to find a way to support the monument, "said Ms. Costa.

The visit of the MEPs but also of the Hellenic Parliament in the village Mesolakkia and the tumulus Kasta was accompanied by ... reactions of journalists, who in their quest to reach the monument were forcibly evicted from the guardian of the monument and collaborator of k. Peristeri. Finally with intervention by the archaeologist allowed entry by ... Sphinxes, that is the entrance of the Tomb. The voices of representatives of SMES, who saw the visit of MEPs as a good chance to get inside the monument, were perceived by their "guests" of responsible of excavation. What angered journalists is that while the Ministry of culture gave permission to eight people to enter the Tomb, It seemed that we visit and about ... fifty escorts.

Photos are prohibited

Of the visit were given clear instructions to the civilian. "Selfie are prohibited and using a mobile" reportedly told colleagues of Ms. Peristeri. The tour lasted about half an hour, from which the fifteen minutes it was inside the Tomb. About their experiences in the ... grave talk in the Karfitsa member of the Southwest, Elena Rapti and MEPs Theodoros Zagorakis and Giorgos Grammatikakis. The visit participated and member of southwest from Serres, Bright Arabatzi.

Elena Rapti, SW mp

Elena Rapti felt great AWE incoming in the archaeological work. "Has done an excellent job. We saw up close all as we had seen in pictures. All the findings remain in place. We arrived to the grave, "says in Karfitsa. "I've studied Culture in Open University know each stage of an excavation. For me had a great interest in academic» comment on Ms. Rapti.

Giorgos Grammatikakis, MEP with the «River»

"This visit of the Committee on culture, that was for the first time in Greece, had multidimensional symbolic and practical significance. The fundamental values that is trying today to defend Europe started sometime from places such as Amphipolis and Hill Kasta. So the message that pops up today, in a turning point for Greece, but also for Europe, is: The Greece together with Europe, for another, however, Europe, solidarity among the peoples and focusing on the real culture» notes from the side of the MEP's ' River ' Giorgos Grammatikakis.

Theodoros Zagorakis, MEP SW

"It really is something you don't expect to see it. So long I watched the discoveries from the tv. But when you enter inside and see close up discovering that is something very big. The feeling is very different when you see the finds from around. The AWE biggest. You smell the excavations! I think sometime the monument should be visited "comments from the side of the MEP of the Southwest, Theodoros Zagorakis. He fills that: "All MEPs were very positive. I hope sometime to restart the excavations. We will try to do everything so that the work be continued».

Amphipolis. gr | Vergína : « … Today, After 131 years, the monuments have spoken for themselves ... "

aigai 1 Βεργίνα : « … Σήμερα, ύστερα από 131 χρόνια, τα μνημεία μίλησαν μόνα τους…»

Manolis Andronikos

When Léon Heuzey , o French archaeologist who began excavations of the Palace of Vergina in 1861, closing the publication of findings of, wish the continuation of research, It was impossible to imagine how fruitful it was this survey. He was careful not to let anonymous region that lies between the villages of Palatitsia and Vergina: the yielded the name of Vallas, a town unknown and insignificant, the name of the saved only some ancient dictionary. Archaeological Research resumed the 1937-38 by Mr. a. Roman and continues as today, proceeded without the help of any written source that could lead the steps of archaeologists.

Today, After 131 years, the monuments have spoken for themselves. The "ftheggomenoi stone", as so aptly described them a pioneer scholar of Macedonian archaeology, m. Dimitsas in the title of the valuable work of «Macedonia in lithois ftheggomenois and mnimeiois swzomenois», allow us to resurrect not merely an ancient Macedonian state,but the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Macedon, the Aigai or Aigees.

aigai 3 Βεργίνα : « … Σήμερα, ύστερα από 131 χρόνια, τα μνημεία μίλησαν μόνα τους…»Written by the cemetery headstone of Vergina. Over 50 such columns by ordinary Macedonians citizens graves have been found. The Greek names of the dead around 400-350 e.g.. reinforce decisively the notion that the Macedonians were Greek sex without Illyrika or Phrygian elements.

Known and this only as a name, had a weird historical fate. Somewhere near the end of the 5th century prochristianikoy ceases to be capital of the Macedonian state, King Archelaus builds new capital, The Pella, down in the Valley, near the sea. Scarce made anymore references to goats in ancient writers, most notable is linked to the murder of Philip in the theatre of the ancient capital in 336 e.g.. A second stated in their occupation 274/3 e.g., by pyrrhus, the guard disengaging itself mercenaries Gauls and desecration of Royal Tombs.

Then slowly lismonietai, as other cities, as Veria, view the years of Roman domination and in the following centuries of Byzantine Empire. The most surprising though, is that once completely deserted and forgotten even the position of. When, After centuries, people interested in history and seek to identify the ancient cradles them, from an unexpected confusion, based on a Roman history-sympiliti, believe that Aigai match Edessa in Western Macedonia. This belief makes them overlook some obvious things, first of all, that is absurd and without precedent a town with two names, following the express testimony of an ancient geographer Ptolemy gives us different geographical spots for the two cities.

aigai 2 Βεργίνα : « … Σήμερα, ύστερα από 131 χρόνια, τα μνημεία μίλησαν μόνα τους…»The chryselefantini shield of Philip

It took the net and scientific courage N. G. L. Hammond to rediscover the Aigai real location. For the first time 1968 in a statement in Thessaloniki supported that Aigai should be placed in Vergína, where had revealed the brilliant Palace and the Macedonian tomb with its imposing marble throne. His opinion based on a series of theoretical considerations and historical information. The continuation of excavations confirmed beyond any expectation the correctness of the identification of this. Today has been accepted by almost all historians and archaeologists. So the findings of excavations apochtoyn of particular importance, Why come to illuminate the history of the very birthplace of ancient Macedonians.

In the current phase of the excavations we can summarise with enough security our knowledge about the city of Aigai.

The first inhabitants of the area seems to have come to this place in the late bronze age, i.e. in the 11th ,or the latest, at the beginning of the 10th BC. century. This follows from the earlier burials the cemetery of tumuli, relating to this period.

aigai 4 Βεργίνα : « … Σήμερα, ύστερα από 131 χρόνια, τα μνημεία μίλησαν μόνα τους…»The gold wreath that stood on the shoulder of the hydria Osteodochoy

The view that it is frygika sexes, Phrygians or Brygoys, finds support from explicit testimonies ancient sources that sometime the Phrygians lived in this part of Macedonia. When the Phrygians were moved, It is difficult to know, but when you think that in the 8th BC. century the Phrygian State of Asia has very impressive acne, We have to accept that Frygwn moved from Europe to Asia cannot be done after the 9th b.c.. century. What I think is certain is that the first Macedonians arriving in the area of Vergina not later than the beginning of the 7th century b.c., threshold does not exclude several prior installation.

Under this established by the Argeiadwn dynasty, the first capital of the Macedonian Kingdom Goat or Aigeai. Although we do not have archaeological finds from the city this season we can assume that he was in the hills south of the Palace. With the transfer of capital in Pella, the Aigai ceased to be the administrative centre, but retained the old glamour seems capital. The elements allow us to regard it as certain that in the 4th b.c.. century the Aigai experienced a period of prosperity , which is most likely due to Philip. In the 4th century. building brilliant Palace, made the theater, built churches and decorated with devotional and votive statues. The city spreads over a large area and below the Palace. It is very likely that the walls that surround almost all the town built in this period, While made remarkable water supply system. The sepulchral monuments and tombs, both assassinated. and the next, show not only wealth, and high cultural level of the inhabitants.

aigai Philip Βεργίνα : « … Σήμερα, ύστερα από 131 χρόνια, τα μνημεία μίλησαν μόνα τους…»The iron Breastplate of Philip found at Vergina. Adorned with gold bands and discs with lion.

Apart from the Royal Tombs, a number of Macedonian tombs attest that wealthy nobles were still living in the old capital. After the Roman conquest brought a bending, but the city still exists, as we can infer from the remains of houses and tombs. But it seems that some displacement toward the plain, I started maybe older, continues in this phase, as evidenced by ruins, but, above all, the foundations of a Paleochristian basilica was revealed recently. For the first few centuries of the Byzantine Empire did not know anything. Though the written testimony of the 14th century we learn of the existence of the village Palatitsia, where the 16th century built the Church of Agios Dimitrios, that saves as today the richest toichografisi of.

It is true that the continuing and systematic study of the findings, will allow us to gain a much clearer and more safe image for this section of Hellenism, from the 4th century. and then starred in the historical course and managed to spread the Greek culture and the Greek language in limits almost universal.

The archaeological survey of the area has given far abundant material for both the knowledge of the culture of the Macedonians and the understanding of their historical physiognomy. It is true that the continuing and systematic study of the findings, will allow us to gain a much clearer and more safe image for this section of Hellenism, from the 4th century. and then starred in the historical course and managed to spread the Greek culture and the Greek language in limits almost universal. And would truly historic paradox, that has no precedent of, If you accept that the coefficients of this world was a nation "hellenization barbarian" which was forced by the rulers to eliminate its national character, change of names, to accept a foreign religion, forget his language to transform into a foreign body upper culture. Beyond any scientific details of sages, There is, I believe, the effective treatment of history which is not easy to become caught up either in pronunciation of a letter nor in the scholasticism of grammatical.

Posted in journal' Hellenic Red Cross Youth '' , March 1992 | Thucydides, the Trojan war and the concept of myth

Written by Thanasis Bantu

There is no doubt that the Homeric epics move more in myth than to historical reality. This is quite reasonable, After the epic concept, by default, involves exaggeration: "epic: poetic composition long-term inspiration and magnitude with intertwined stories, who celebrates with thriambologiki, laudatory and often Exoraistiki disposal known exploits heroes, gods and rulers ". (Dictionary of Mpampiniotis).

The epic aims to delight. The saga concerning the recreational potential of the panel having fed with myths. There is nothing more detonative, more balancing, more exypsotiko while more soothing than the team legend. That's why bards related festivals. Why the festivities associated with the wild, ie emotional release. Legend is the gate of this mechanism. It is the ritual of togetherness, operated almost intuitively, like illusion together, as equity surpassing oneself, as unconditional surrender, as collective - the limits of the metaphysical - experience.

And this is precisely the escape. We are talking about the exodus of individuality, that wants, just for a little bit, to unite with others. And the more alive the myth represented, the more true is. The myth truth is but the measure of vanishing intensity. The aim of the myth momentary loss of consciousness, which diffuses into the consciousness of the imaginary other that shape its evolution. And from here begins the conformation. Why is the identification and aversion that inevitably arises, as empathy, is not the unconscious restore self that underground is invited to take a stand, but implementing the myth that forces the audience to join diadramatizomeno scene.

Conflicts of imaginary cosmogony are personal affair, After, by overcoming the self, All are personally, turning the myth into experiential Treaty. The experience of the myth is the greatest emotional recovery, only as identification can be interpreted that becomes obvious pedagogical dimensions, transforming the imaginary buffer behavior factor in shaping desires against the alleged standards. Therefore the Homeric epics were the most reliable training material in ancient Athens. That "it still has a prominent position in today's schools. Why make it clear that the good identified with valor, patriotism, etc. and that the error is identified with cowardice, selfishness etc.. Faced with this truth optics has little importance.

But if the myth coincides with art, the truth is identified with science. And if the story is the search for the truth about the events of the past then there is no choice but to acquire scientific dimensions, only methodologically can be secured. And exactly here starts the role of Thucydides: "Thucydides the Athenian, wrote the history of the Peloponnesian War and the Athenians, how they fought each other, starting to write soon broke, and he predicted that large dimensions will take more remarkable than all the previous will be ". (book first, a paragraph, translated by A.. Georgopapadakou).

Thucydides obviously spent the first seven years of the Peloponnesian War Athens and knew the facts firsthand, having heard the words of Pericles and discussions about Pylos and Mytilene. When the 424 BC exiled for 20 years due to the loss of Amphipolis, fled to his estates in Thrace and devoted himself to writing the history of the war by defining for the first time in mankind the principles of scientific historiography:

"The operations during the war were, not judged proper to write them based on the first of the information or as I thought, but after I researched every possible accuracy for each, both for him that he was present and for those who learned from others. And identification was difficult, because the witnesses did not say the same for the same incident, but everyone according to his sympathy for one or the other faction or katapos remembered. And as to hear my narration, because missing from this mythical, perhaps it will seem less pleasant. But those who will want to know exactly what happened and those, according to human nature, will be once again such or similar as to consider my job done payload will be enough. The project is written more like essay eternal than a temporary reading can He hear some pleasant ". (book first, paragraph 22, A translation. Georgopapadakos).

Thucydides makes clear from the beginning that does not write for pleasure, but for the truth.But again we face teaching - pedagogical component that will benefit humanity, After, for Thucydides, The story moves from laws that require it to repeat "such or similar" and moving "according to human nature". That just interested Thucydides, human nature. Why is the official record of history is nothing but the study of human behavior in the various historical stimuli that the more one studies the, more notes that resemble.

Thucydides does not trust the facts "as sung by the poets, that exaggerated and embellished, or as reports Dictaphones, most requested to delight their listeners than to tell them the truth .... ". (book first, paragraph 21). Besides well aware that people are quite prone to myths: "There are many other things, and yet modern and not forgotten by polykairia, for that and other Greeks have erroneous opinions, like for example that the kings of the Spartans have one vote each, but two, and that there is a company Pitanatis the Spartan army that never existed. So little inconvenienced by many to seek the truth and more inclined to accept ready ". (book first, paragraph 20).

The Trojan War by Thucydides the lists in archeology. When Minos organized the Navy and fought piracy, making its seas safer, They began to flourish coastline. There being some "rich built walls around their cities. Why desiring profits, and the poorest accept dependence on stronger, and the stronger, having wealth, They made them vassals smaller cities. They are no longer in this condition, When, αργότερα, He has made the campaign against Troy '. (book first paragraph 8).

The imperialist game of power was the necessary condition to pass the Trojan war:

"Agamemnon, in my opinion, He managed to gather forces for the campaign against Troy, mainly because it was stronger than other rulers, and not because of Helen's suitors, made their leader, They were committed to the vows which they had to Tyndareus', and complements: "After receiving the inheritance that Agamemnon and simultaneously acquired a navy stronger than any other, could in my opinion will make campaign and those who followed him, the 'kaman more by fear than by courtesy.

Is, Moreover, obvious that he took part in the campaign having the most numerous ships and that gave Arkades, as mentioned by Homer, if one can rely on the testimony ..... If, well, Agamemnon had no significant navy, it could not, and it was a landlubber, to dominate islands, except nearby the, not many. And from this campaign should conclude what was the earlier situation ". (book first, paragraph 9).

Thucydides, defines the authority's financial interests as the driving force of history. So it speaks of human passions. Why there are no divine intervention, or games of fate, nor fortuitous events. Only the battle of power, namely the human factor. But the disenchantment of the Trojan war and regards the piece of actual warfare: "Even if you have to give and here faith in Homer, who, as poet, it is natural to the exaggerated, and this campaign again was obviously lower than today.

So says the poet that the twelve hundred ships that took part in the campaign, Boeotian had one hundred and twenty men each and Philoctetes fifty, wanting to show so, in my opinion, the biggest and the smallest.Certainly the list of ships not mention another size ships. That, Moreover, all the men were both rowers and warriors to mention, when you are talking about the ships of Philoctetes. He says here that all rowers were archers. Passengers, except kings and foremost officials, it is unlikely that many were on board, one and was to spend Sea loaded weaponry and also had no deck, but they were made in the old way, as pirate. So if you take the average of the larger and smaller ships, It does not seem to be many people who took part in the campaign, a and sent thereto warriors from all over Greece.

Reason for this was not so much the lack of people as lack of money. Because of inadequate supplies had brought little army, so only as they hoped he could be maintained locally by fighting. And when we landed and defeated in the first battle (it is obvious, because otherwise they could not have wall to protect their camp) and they do not seem to have used all their strength, but from lack of food, They engaged in the cultivation of the Peninsula and depredations. Because of the dispersion of their forces were the Troadites withstand ten whole years war, They were tied with the Greek forces at a time lived in the camp.

If, Instead, Greeks had come having food reserves and instead engaged in agriculture and looting, then fought together, easily, thanks to their superiority in battle, They would conquer the city, and after that was scattered and only part of their army whenever available, withstood. If, Moreover, They were making regular siege, They conquered Troy in less time and with less effort. But lack of money and before the Trojan was insignificant, and these same, Mole who were more famous than the previous, demonstrated by things that were inferior to the reputation and tradition, thanks to poets, He has now prevailed for them ". (book first, paragraphs 10 – 11).

Though, as a clear knowledge of the history - only the story as science can offer - becomes indispensable for sound judgment of events (namely human behavior as unfolding through the centuries), equally enlightening works and legend, that, ultimately, transforming events into art - in the light of the excesses of data - penetrates the human abyss turning it into an object of interpretation.We say in front of two conflicting mechanisms, finally reconciled, since in substance the same objectives.

Identifying behavioral incentives, the concept of collective action, the ambition of individuality, Extrapolation of the events in the present, attempting Forecast, reflection, identify the possible recurrence, the perception of continuity through the centuries, fanaticism, the economic interest, the irrational barbarism etc etc, in short pedagogical role of human study, the subject of historical development, concerns and history, as a scientific concept, and legend, as a concept art. That is why the historical restoration of the Trojan War by Thucydides, You will never frustrate the fictional rendering of Homer, but will tie in to the same eternal contrarian while joining skein.

The problem starts when the limits are lost and when the myth presented as fact deliberately distorting the historical truth. When that story coined arbitrarily converted from truth-seeking mechanism propaganda interests of service tool. But here we are not talking about legend. We are talking about opportunism, and this is a completely different story.

The Trojan horse (Trojan = wood) in Greek mythology is construction inspired by Ulysses, a wooden horse-crypt. Purpose of Ulysses was to mislead the Trojans and to perceive it as a gift and as a sign of good will and peace from the Achaeans.

"Thucydides 'History' translational. Georgopapadakou versions MALLIARIS EDUCATION A 'version 1985 | The battle of Issus (333 e.g.)

The Alexander while he was in Mallo, He learned that Darius Camping with all its troops in Swchoys. This area belongs to Assyria and away from the Assyrian Gates about two stations. Therefore the partners gathered and announced the news about Darius and the army. They again urged him to start without delay. He praised and dissolved the meeting. The next day, He began to meet Darius and the Persians. Within two days from the time he passed the gates, encamped near the town Myriandro. In the night erupted storm with rain and strong wind and Alexander was forced to stay in camp.

From the other, Darius the army was winning time. He had chosen an open plain Assyrian, that could accommodate the large army and was suitable for cavalry maneuvers. Amyntas, son of Antiochus, who had defected from Alexander advised him not to leave the area, which was so spacious for the troops and supplies Persian. So he stayed there Darius. Meanwhile as Alexander delayed much in Tarsus, due to illness and Soloi, where sacrifice and made parades losing precious time fighting the highlanders Cilicians, Darius changed his mind. Moreover, He was ready to believe that it was more pleasant. They roused and minds are avlokolakes and believed that Alexander no longer wants to proceed, but he hesitated just learned that he is approaching. They stir everyone from all sides saying that it would trample on the cavalry to Macedonian army. However Amyntas insisted that Alexander will get anywhere is learned that Darius and urged waiting there. but convinced of the worst estimates, because at that time it was more pleasant. Maybe some divine power led him to that plain, because neither the cavalry especially benefited, nor the number of soldiers, and Alexander and the army easily defeated. Moreover, They were destined to lose the Persian hegemony in Asia by the Macedonians, as the Medes had lost by the Persians and earlier Assyrians by the Medes. O Darius crossed the mountains near the so-called Sleeveless gates, He proceeded to Issus and without being noticed, It was found in the back of Alexander. Entered Issus, where he killed with horrible torture ill Macedonians who had remained there. The next day, proceeded to the river Pinar. When Alexander heard that Darius is back, not considered reliable news.

So put on triakontoro (ship with thirty oars) some companions and sent to Issus, to check on the spot if the news is true. They learned very easily that the Persians are where the sea formed the bay. They sent a message to Alexander that is holding Darius. He again called a meeting of generals, their ilarchous and the commanders of the allies and urged them to have courage, as already earlier battles had a good result and the Macedonians would fight as winners vs. losers. Even he told them that the divine power is the best quarterback, He struck the mind of Darius getting his troops from the open plain and the cornered in the narrow passage that was that we had to develop the phalanx and the number of Persians will not help them in battle, because their physical condition and their moral fortitude was not depending on him. Alexander added yet, that the Macedonians of old practiced martial arts with many dangers and people were free, They will fight against the Persians and Medes who has long lived and highly self-indulgent life were slaves. And those Greeks will fight against Greeks, They will not do it for the same reasons· they will fight alongside Darius, They will risk their lives just for the money, while those who will fight the Macedonians will voluntarily defend Greece. As for the Barbarians, the Thracians, the Paionians, Illyrians and Agrianes, the most robust and well-trained European nations, They will be applied to the less skilled and more self-indulgent peoples of Asia.

Alexander_the_GreatEnd, Alexander himself would head toward Darius. He explained that these were their advantages in battle and say that their prizes in this race will be long. Because they would not defeat the satraps of Darius, the cavalry lined the Granicus and twenty thousand foreign mercenaries, but the flower Persian, the Medes and all the other nations enslaved to the Medes and Persians inhabit Asia and the very great king this. And after this battle, the only thing that would stay them, It would be the domination of the whole of Asia and the end of their labors more. Apart from these, reminded them of the glory of their common achievements and even, if there was a great personal achievement, the reminiscent and this, with him who did it. He described modestly what he had done himself in battles. They also reminded that the Xenophon and the Ten Thousand, although there were similarities in the number or, or other preparations· The myriad had no cavalry, nor Thessaly, nor Boeotian, nor Macedonian, nor Peloponnesian or Thracian, nor archers or slingers, except a few Rhodians and Cretans and those who organized the makeshift Xenophon in the risk. And yet they escaped the great king and his entire army to Babylon, They defeated all the people who were blocking the road and reached the Black Sea. He even said too many other suits telling a brave prince to brave men to give them courage before the battle. They surrounded him, They shook his hand and urged him to start immediately.

O Alexander ordered the soldiers to dine· then sent to the gates precursors few horsemen and archers to check in advance the path that led behind the gates. During the night immediately attacked the gates with all of the Army. Around midnight possessed all passages. The rest of the night the army rested there, on the stones, Carefully placing external guards. By dawn, He descends from the gates to the street. Where the road was narrow, led them arrayed in close line, but where open paretasse army convoy in, placing battalions of soldiers one after another, until they reach the right the mountain and to the left the sea. The cavalry had earlier placed after the infantry. Once they arrived in the open, the army arrayed for battle. On the right wing near mountain arrayed the contingent of infantry and his lieutenants, led by Nicanor, the son of Parmenion, next to them the order of the public and then the battalion of Perdiccas. Left, first placed the battalion Amyntas, then Ptolemy and after the Meleager. The Krateros appointed captain of infantry of the left side and Parmenion entire horn. even took command not removed from the sea, for not encircled by the barbarians, which flank so to their large number. principle.

The battle of Issus- painting by Altdorfer 1529 pnakothiki MunichThe battle

Once Darius learned that Alexander approaching and ready to give battle, He spent about thirty thousand horsemen and twenty thousand about light infantry on the opposite bank of the river Pinar, to line up in peace the rest of his army. Placed in front of their soldiers about thirty thousand Greek mercenaries, opposite the Macedonian phalanx. Next to them on each side, about thirty thousand of the so-called Kardakkes, who were also soldiers. So fit area, if they lined up in convoy. On the left side, near mountain, across from the right side of Alexander, placed around twenty thousand. Some of them, They moved to the rear of the army of Alexander. The mountain where paratachtikan formed at a point cavity, like bay· then, Had a curve, which pushed them arrayed at the foot, behind the right wing Alexander. The remaining fine and soldiers paratachtikan against nations, behind the Greek mercenaries and their phalanx arrayed against barbarians, so deeply, that they are useless. It is said that the whole army of Darius consisted of six hundred thousand combatants men.

Alexander saw that little bit more the area widens in front placed in series cavalry so-called partners Thessalians and Macedonians. Them kept them close to the right wing, while he sent the Peloponnesians and the other left allies in Parmenion.

When Darius arrayed the convoy, He gave the signal to return the horsemen who had placed in front of the river, to cover the maneuvers of the army of. Most of them, put them in the right horn, near the sea, where the area was more suitable for cavalry. Another part of the Left led, near mountain. but there, it seemed that it would be useless, because of lack of space. So he ordered many of them come with their horses in the right wing. The Darius himself was in the middle of the party, as the law of the Persian kings. Xenophon, his son jack, He was the reason for this placement.

Meanwhile, Alexander noted that almost all the Persian cavalry moved to the left of, near the sea. But there was only deploy the Peloponnesians and the rest of the allied cavalry. So He sent quickly to the left the Thessalians horsemen, ordering them not to go in front of the array, to not reveal the moving enemies, but to move hidden behind the phalanx. Placed in front of the riders to the right precursors, led by Protomacho and Paionians, led by Ariston. In front of pedestrians, put archers, led by Antiochus. even arrayed them Agrianes led Attalus and some horsemen in corner, near the mountain that stood behind him. So, on the right side of the column was divided into two parts, one of which looked to Darius and the main body of the Persians, over the river and the other to the arrayed mountain, across their backs. On the left, in front of the infantry, placed Cretans and Thracians archers led by Sitalkes and in front of the left side of the cavalry. Foreign mercenaries were placed behind all. But because Alexander considered the column to the right was sparse and the Persians far seemed to transcend, iles ordered two partners to leave the vehicle and move secretly to right. These were the Anthemusias with ilarcho the Peroida, son menestheus and called Lefgaia, with ilarcho the Pantordano, son Kleandrou. archers, some Agrianes and Greek mercenaries led in front of the right part and proexeteine ​​the convoy until the horn Persian. The Persians who had been placed on the mountain not attempted descent· Alexander ordered Agrianes and few archers make raid against them. Easily forced to abandon the foothills and mountain resort. Alexander then decided to have the ability to use them placed there to complete the phalanx. At this point, held that the three hundred horsemen sufficient.

Battle of Issus - map faction forces - πηγή /

Having placed them so, Alexander ordered the convoy to proceed for some time with small stops· their progress closely resembled walk. Once the barbarians tachtopoiithikan to their original positions, Darius did not went further. He remained on the river, which was in many places steep, building trench at points that seemed most vulnerable to assault. This has shown to Alexander and his entourage that Darius was defeated psychology. When the two camps had already approached, Alexander horseback skirted lining, rousing his men to look brave. Called to praise depending not only their heads and their captains and ilarchous and foreign mercenaries who were best known due to some office or some exploits. From everywhere, the screaming would not delay, but to attack enemies. He still leads a faction, principle marching, although already saw the army of Darius. This, lest diasaleftei class in convoy and driven to dissolution, walking faster. Once they arrived within striking distance, first the right wing led by Alexander himself quickly entered the river. The aim was to surprised the Persians at the speed of attack to limit the losses Persian arrows and accelerate melee. Things were as imagined Alexander. Once started the melee, the left part of the Persian army fled. At this point, They achieved a brilliant victory Alexander and sequenced. The Greek mercenaries but they are fighting with Darius, They attacked the Macedonian phalanx, whose right wing had begun throwing. Because Alexander the rush to get to the river and start the battle from the close quarters, already pushed the Persians who were lined up at this point. The middle of the lineup but could not move so fast· in many places even fell on the steep banks and was unable to keep the original class. The Greek mercenaries then hit the convoy where you saw that has more losing its cohesion. There they played a lot of things· mercenaries trying to xanasproxoun Macedonians river and keep winning, already flying away· Macedonians again did not want to betray the apparent success of Alexander and destroy the reputation of the phalanx, hitherto rumored as invincible. Then woke competition between Macedonians and southern Greek. Then Ptolemy killed, son of Seleucus, fighting bravely and about one hundred and eighty eminent Macedonians.

Meanwhile the battalions of the right faction saw that the Persians, who were before them, permits already in flight. then they turned against the foreign mercenaries of Darius, where part of the phalanx accept strong pressure· their repulsed by the river, outflanking parts of the Persian army had broken, attacked from the side and massacred mercenaries. The Persian horsemen located opposite the Thessalians did not keep their positions across the river, but they went and attacked by bravery in Thessalians. Εκεί, It became very tough cavalry battle· Persians fled, only when they realized that Darius was leaving and half had completely dispersed and katasfagei the phalanx. then anymore, it became apparent that all fled. During the retreat the horses the Persians suffered from heavy armed riders· and the riders themselves but, as were many and retreated disorderly and fearful through narrow passages, mockery among themselves and thus suffers more damage than that caused their enemies. Their Thessalians persecuted bravely· so, during the retreat killed so those riders and pedestrians.

Darius just saw that left faction panicked with the advent of Alexander and cut off from the rest of lineup, He walked away with the first, as he was on his chariot. Ran as smooth ground when fleeing the, He was safe on his chariot· But upon arriving at the gorge and inaccessible area, threw kandy (mantle) and shield, He dropped the bow into the chariot, left it there and went on horseback fleeing the. That there was captured by Alexander, because he rapidly fell night. Alexander kept as light, She chased him with all his strength· but when it got dark and he could not see in front of, He turned again into the camp. But he took the chariot of Darius and, therewith, shield, the kandy and bow. From the other, delayed the chase, because just saw the first rift in convoy, He turned back and did not start until after he saw that foreign mercenaries and cavalry turns away from the river. From the Persians, They killed the Arsames, the Reomithris and Atizyis, leaders of the cavalry at Granicus· even, the Safakis, satrap of Egypt and Vouvakis, Persian official. Of the others killed about a hundred thousand pedestrians and more than ten thousand horsemen. even says Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, which then followed Alexander, that persecutors Darius met a canyon and passed clicking on the corpses. The Darius camp immediately seized by raid and captured his mother, his wife, who was also his sister, young son, two daughters and a few nobles Blinds sequence. Because the other Persians had sent their wives and their belongings in Damascus. And though Darius had sent to Damascus in more money and whatever else gets him a king, to live lavishly on campaigns. So the camp were not more than three thousand talents. The money were in Damascus he took shortly after Parmenion, He went there for that purpose. So ended this battle, the Maimaktiriona month, when Athens was archon the Nikokratis.

The next day

The next day, Alexander despite his injury in the thigh by sword, He visited the wounded and having been kidepse majestically dead, lined entire phalanx in the most impressive way to lead to war. Those found personally that excelled in battle, the consensus that existed for their accomplishments, She honored them with his words and with donations commensurate with their value. Appointed satrap of Cilicia to Valakro, son of Nicanor, one of the royal bodyguards. In his place, the bodyguards, placed the next, his son Dionysios. Guild master Ptolemy, son of Seleucus, killed in battle, appointed Polyperchon, son Simmia. Residents of Solon, from the tax imposed, gave fifty talents had not yet returned and give hostages.

The Family of Darius before Alexander - painting by Paolo Veronese 1570even made sure the mother, the wife and children of Darius. Some of those who wrote the history of Alexander say that the very night he returned from the pursuit of Darius, He headed to the scene of Darius, which was to use the same. So nearby heard women crying and analog noise· He asked to learn what these women and why were staying so close. Someone replied: "King, It is the mother, the wife and children of Darius. They learned that you got his bow and basil kandy and that comes back the shield and mourn, because they think that Darius died ". When he heard these Alexander, sent a partner, the Leonnatou, with a mandate to tell them that Darius lives and that the flight of dropped weapons and kandy on his chariot, and that only those objects held by Alexander. The generals Leonattos went on stage, He said what happened to Darius and even that Alexander will give them all the royal values ​​and the addresses queens· This is because not personally fighting against Darius, but according to the laws for the sovereignty of Asia. They say Ptolemy and Aristobulus. It is also said something else· The next day, Alexander himself entered the scene, having only companion Hephaistion partner. The mother of Darius did not understand which one is king, because they were dressed in the same way. So she went ahead and bowed Hephaestion, she seemed more majestic. But Hephaestion made it back and someone from the environment showed Alexander telling her what. This embarrassed about the mistake and fell. Then Alexander said she is not wrong, because he too is Alexander. I just mention the fact, nor as true but not as completely fake. But if that made things, commend Alexander regretted that women and showed such confidence and appreciation to his friend. but it may simply be the authors felt that Alexander could speak and behave so. Even if this is the case again commend.

O Darius escaped into the night, with few of the sequence of. Spend a day to assemble the Persians and foreign mercenaries who survived the battle. Collect around four thousand and with them quickly moved to the city Thapsako and the River Euphrates. Hurry to put the river between himself and Alexander. Amyntas, son of Antiochus, the Thymondas, his son Mentor, the Aristomidis of Feres, the Vianoras from Akarnania, all defection, together with their soldiers (eight thousand people around as it was lined, They came down from the mountains and arrived in Tripoli in Phoenicia. There by the ships which arrived from Lesbos and had now pulled ashore, They grabbed what they believed to be sufficient for their transport. The dropped in water, They burned the rest in Naval Stations, to not facilitate the persecution and fled to Cyprus, that way, in Egypt. There a little later, something cobbled together Amyntas and killed locals. Pharnabazus and Autophradates awaited advance in Chios. They placed guards on the island, sent some ships in Kos, Bodrum and the same as the one hundred most seaworthy went to Sifnos. Εκεί, She went and found the king of Sparta, Agis, on a trireme. He asked money to make war and demanded to send the Peloponnese as more army and navy could. That moment, came the news of the battle at Issus. They were surprised by the announcement. Pharnabazus with twelve galleys and fifteen hundred foreign mercenaries went to Chios, because he was afraid of the announcement of the defeat rebel Chians. Agis got from Autophradates thirty silver talents ten triremes. Hippias commissioned to lead them to his brother, Agesilaus, in Tainaro. He ordered him to tell Agesilaus give sailors their entire salary and go as soon as possible in Crete, to settle things there. He remained in principle the islands and later went to Autophradates Bodrum. Alexander appointed satrap of the hollow Syria Menon, his son Kerdimma and gave him to guard the country the allied cavalry. He went to Phoenicia. On the way he met the barracks, son Girostratou, King of rows and the neighboring region. The Girostratos followed his Autophradates voyage, like other kings of Cypriots and Phoenicians. The barracks but, when he met Alexander, crowned with the gold wreath and handed the island of Arados, rich and happy city Fennel, built on land opposite the rows, the Sigona, Mariammi the city and the rest commanding.



2. Arrian "Anabasis of Alexander Book II 'performance in Modern Greek from the book" Greeks "of Ulysses versions Chatzopoulos. | Exichniazontas crime in ancient Amphipolis

Atrocious crime in ancient Amphipolis! Five bodies dipped in blood and a suspect compose the puzzle of heinous murders. But nothing is as it seems or as the true perpetrators wanted to look ...

The lifeless bodies flying over their data "reveal" the perpetrators. He who undertakes to unravel the thread of the case is none other than Alexander the Athenian ... The hero of Thanou Kondyli in his second adventure captivates the reader until the last page. With the movements of breaks omertà villa and reveals a sensational case that the murders were the tip of the iceberg. The author of "Crime in Ancient Amphipolis" Thanos account "interrogated" by the Docket for new and unsettling book responds with openness to the questions we. Enjoy the interview below, but read the book which will win you from the first moment ... "Nothing is as it seems and nothing is harder than the truth". "Crime in Ancient Amphipolis", a book that you worked long. Why your project you distract many positive reviews and opinions. You think that is one of the spearheads of your writing course;

«It is one of the most important of my books with historical content. I had three months research in libraries and about seven months to complete. The history of ancient Greece in each level is passed through these pages. Well not accidentally has addressed the audience who loves Greek history and quality readings. I believe that such a book was missing from the Greek market of novel and so I wrote ".

This is the second adventure of Alexander the Athenian, so why the action this time moved and unfolded in Ancient Amphipolis;

"The CRIME IN ANCIENT Amphipolis is the second adventure of Alexander Athenian, Judge now arrives at Amphipolis, Athenian colony to Macedonia 5the century BC. X. This city was not accidental for Athens. Basically it was a, where possible, city ​​- a copy of the metropolis and thus of equal. With this novel, than other, I want to show the reader the imperialist policy of the great power of antiquity, Athena's, which largely operated in the ancient world as today America. I had no better choice than the ancient Amphipolis. I always thought that the past can teach us many and so chose Amphipolis to the center of my novel ".

"One in both the rulers is not bad to keep in touch with the world. Listen to the needs of. And I believe that it is imperative ... "What happens in our own contemporary political society;

"Probably not. the princes, Whatever they, Today minimally engaged with the world. Unless they are election season and so beg the vote tazontas "hares with stole" as the saying goes. Unlike ancient Greece where politicians were circulating among the people, was a citizen among citizens, nothing more and nothing less ".

"She left leaving behind a smile that promised much. I went back in the sea. I closed my eyes and let myself hear the call ". Woman and sea in a snapshot ... At that time Alexander conquered the Athenian both creating the "fiery thoughts". Eventually the fire, the woman and the sea are integral parts of our lives;

"For fire and the sea do not know. inevitably though – and personally I would say, especially for women ... EFTYCHOS present among us! think, what would be a life without female; Nothing. The world will not proceed. The life of man depends on woman multiply, and I do not mean only sex. The female is essentially the essence of the existence of this world, from any point of view. Here I will say something else. Remember that before what we call "historical times", the woman, form of, was the dominant worldwide. Especially in prehistoric times was the only "God" that honored by people. The transition of societies to a new level during the historical years brought the total reversal with most dominant males, even at the level of the gods ..., that mean that!».

"If it was an island I would say that I was in the islands of the Blessed, where the souls of the righteous man and "Olbia heroes go" ... that says the poet Hesiod. We now today we have forget the life we ​​do to seek these islands;

"Unfortunately today people do not deal with ideas but just things. In other words, are not interested in the ideal and the ideal only what they see their eyes and what they catch their hands. I believe this is the greatest degradation of our culture than the culture that had developed the ancient Greece and which is largely based on the ideas, the non-material world, but without being relegated and the world of things and the senses. I think it was a balance that has now been lost ".

"The moneylenders are the worst enemies of citizenship and democracy collectively", Alexander said the Athenian referring to Chrysanthos. Really what he would say if he lived today that the entire planet is a prisoner usurers gang;

"He just would stoically confirmed his view. Generally the world of ancient Greece did not differ much from the current world. Alexander was a pragmatist of the era. He had his eyes open and profession listens more than anyone at the time of. Well I do not think that would feel and great surprise if he lived today ".

Could Areopagite keep the information appeared in the beginning and closed the case against Chrysanthos. But did extensive research and piece - part completed jigsaw puzzle of multiple murder. The role of the judge proved important for the life of people like respectively doctor. The faith in the administration of justice is armed with patience and faith people until our days;

"Think, these two elements are home every man who believes in the divine and that justice is a final expression. Especially nowadays that lawlessness is almost status, justice is really stability pillar of our society ".

How important were the findings of the coroner to clarify crime;

"The medicine was of the greatest sciences which flourished in our country since ancient times. Well I could not not to mention. Together and philosophy and mathematics. StoEGKLIMA IN ANCIENT Amphipolis medicine and its representative, Alexander's friend Judge indeed prominently ".

A person of "bottom" of society was this whose testimony essentially corroborated the conjecture of Aeropagitou. This shows that we must respect those who are next to us as "high" and "low" and if;

"The testimony of that person was actually an auxiliary. But nothing could help itself Alexander. Essentially a meaning and an idea that I pass the text is that the logic has many aspects and their combination and only one leads to the solution, or if you want to redemption ".

"I remembered the saying attributed to known Chilonos the Lacedaemonian, the "Meden Agan" ... "The exaggeration hurts but not seen from our history and from our DNA that we are people who do not have any measure;

"Correct. And this is one of the basic meanings of the story will read. The exaggeration hurts everything - even at the level of love – never benefit. Unfortunately Greeks are, consider, people of extravagance and many times we think we can do things beyond our powers ".

The Ktisifontas the architect is the "key" of the past and today;]

"Correct. In this particular part of the book the reader will read the fictionalized version of how possibly began building the current tomb in Amphipolis and will receive information about how the ancients honored their dead. You will be pleasantly surprised "!

Why would someone choose this book now summer among dozens of titles in circulation;

"The CRIME IN ANCIENT Amphipolis is a book that conveys Greece from the first to the last page. Why would someone choose a book that is unrelated to our beautiful Greece; Why would someone not read a good historical novel that beyond the pleasure not to learn five things about the history of our beautiful country; This is a book that gives us all this and more. Anguish, Answers to questions about human nature, of how thoughts of our ancestors, for life itself ".

End, "Crime in Ancient Amphipolis" what is your own view on the discoveries made last year and if you think Amphipolis is important deposit of culture and ancient history and why;

"Indeed Ancient Amphipolis is a culture deposit in Greece and the world at large. My personal view is that we have much more to see and learn from the tomb of Amphipolis. I also believe that over time was used by our ancestors, hence the remains of five frames. But let's have a little patience, until they come for official announcements by archaeologists on the mound, so too will solve our many questions ".

About the book

432 e.g.. Alexander Khan, Aristocrat and Supreme Court, switches to Amphipolis with a mandate to review the functioning of the judicial system of the new colony of Athens in Macedonia.

One day receives an invitation from a friend to attend a two-day symposium in an enormous villa outside the city. There you will meet many people and a beautiful slave, the Evmorfia, you love him. For two days will be left in the fun and love, But the day will awaken the screams of despair and cries of pain. Will rush and will be found in front of the corpses of some of the diners. You will immediately begin intensive investigations and interrogations.

They will very quickly realize that several had serious motives to commit murder and benefit in different ways. But what Alexander did not suspect is that the killer continuously monitor and, quaintly, leads his steps. Whither we; In death;

Ancient Amphipolis relives through the pages of this mystery and love story with an explosive rate action and unforeseen developments.


Two words from the author

"This book literally breathes the rhythms and sounds of ancient Greece. In its pages emerges from the past Ancient Amphipolis shrouded in mist of mystery knit novelist, so wanting in my own way to revive the history and the present in modern Greek reader as an admirable piece of the ancient Greek world "

"This book literally breathes the rhythms and sounds of ancient Greece. In its pages emerges from the past Ancient Amphipolis shrouded in mist of mystery knit novelist, so wanting in my own way to revive the history and the present in modern Greek reader as an admirable piece of the ancient Greek world "

Interview Lefteris X. Theodorakopoulos and Docket | Amphipolis: Unraveling the tangled web of history

Amphipolis: Unraveling the tangled web of history

A city of Northern Greece with rich history and background affair, public interest in 2014 with a huge discovery… and a grave looking the enoiko of.

Amphipolis in addition to one of the major cities of Macedonia in antiquity, It was in Roman times a particular urban center in the region, It was the seat of the administrative district “Macedonian First” and seat of Bishop in the early Christian times.

The first findings linking Amphipolis with the early Christian times and make it a remarkable religious center of the time, brought to light by the excavations of, the 1961, the archaeologist Dimitris Lazaridis.


"But the longer axiologon ktirion Ito church early Christian times, revealed unto Bezesteni position '’ and within the field of Joseph Efthymiadis, East of apokalyftheisis in the year 1961 Colonnade. Ekplixin causes the fact that four palaiochristianikai basilikai eichon built in so very apostasin one from the other. Royal d Micron only part emerged, namely the eastern side on the outside and only a portion of the northern and southern side of. It was detected that this is a Royal triklitoy width 19,85 and diameter socket 6,75 m. The South side became clear on film 14,38 m. the North on length 11,20 m. The exterior walls of the Basilica have thickness 0,80 m. – 0,85 m., the wall of the socket 1 Metron and the mainstay 0,78 m. It was detected by a test trench genomenis unto the central aisle, that Royal had plakostrwton dapedon…”, the archaeologist Dimitris Lazaridis in "proceedings of the archaeological society, in the quote of the year 1964 with theme: "Anaskafai and ereynai at Amphipolis».

Written testimonies reveal that was a stopping point of the Apostle Paul, you going to Thessaloniki, passed from Amphipolis and preached Christianity in the region. Specific, It is reported that in the middle of the 1st century a.d, around 50 a.d., the Apostle Paul in his path by Philippi in Thessaloniki, passed from Amphipolis. According to oral testimonies, the Apostle Paul the year 49 a.d., along with three companions of Silas and Timothy Luke as they go from Philippi in Amphipolis, stopped in the village of Rodolivos of Amphipolis, After the apocalyptic vision that saw one night when he was in Troas, on the Asian side of the Dardanelles straits, There was built the ancient city of Troy.

According to the vision, as mentioned in the New Testament in the book of the acts of the Apostles, who wrote the Evangelist, physician and associate of Paul the Apostle refers specifically: and Paul appeared during the night a vision of "A female Macedonian stood erect, pleasing him and saying: Passage to Macedonia and help us ".

Christian Amphipolis is in the same archaeological site in place of the ancient Acropolis. With the end of the ancient world, the transfer of the capital of the Roman Empire in Constantinople and the establishment of Christianity as the official religion of, favored a new blooming period of Amphipolis as a place of Christian pilgrimage.

"When you were in ereynan parts with diakosmisin aplin reflectives crosses and various architectural elements namely sections columns and kiokranwn with diakosmisin soft akanthis sheets and cross in the Middle. In the soils of epichwsews perisynelegisan marquetry and mosaic sections EC katastrafeisis decoration of the walls of the Basilica "mentions in his memoirs, the archaeologist Dimitris Lazaridis.

During the 6th century one witnesses in place of pagan shrines of ancient Acropolis, continuing the monumental temples of the new religion. The excavations uncovered four Basilicas of triklites 5th and 6th century a.d. with superb mosaic floors. The most impressive Byzantine monument in the area is the perikentros Temple of the 6th century Basilica, one of the few early perikentroys temples in Greece. The edge of the city in early Christian times attest and other findings, as inscriptions, embossed, tombstones, vessels, coins and miniature paintings. Under discovered miliaria (miliaria), ododeiktes, in which state the mileage from the previous Station Road. In them also inscribed the name of the manufacturer of the Egnatia and later of the anakainistwn.

Despite the downsizing of the ancient city, Amphipolis of early Christian times extended and outside the fortification of the walls. The size and brilliance of religious buildings testify to the dynamism of the early Christian city.

Pestilence, in the 6th century and the movement of Slavic peoples then, led to the gradual degradation of the city and eventually led to its demise as an urban centre. According to the archaeologist Stavroula Dadaki, There is destruction of monuments and shrinking of the city, phenomenon found in all early Christian cities of the Mediterranean basin and reflects the critical period of the Byzantine Empire at that time. The absence of Amphipolis by the sources from the late 7th century and after (last mention of the diocese Amphipolis becomes the 692 a.d.), indicates the rapid decline and abandonment of. After the 9th century, the household core policy at the mouth of the Struma, where a port city, along the lines of mesobyzantinwn cities-castles, known by the name Chrysoypolis and in life as in the 16th century. In the area of the Delta of Strymon scattered buildings of Byzantine and post-Byzantine years, associated either with dependencies of Mount Athos with either the port of Kavala and the roads that lead from the coast to the hinterland.

On the ruins of the historic Amphipolis created a small settlement, the Marmarion, which lies north of the modern village, outside the fortified city and near the crossing of the river Strymon, known as a resource of marmari, the ancient wooden bridge, and served the parking needs of travelers, I coloured the Struma. Life in the Marmario continued in the post-Byzantine and early Ottoman times.

In the mid-14th century in the region of Amphipolis operate the brothers Alexios and John, who as allies of the Emperor John V Palaiologos distracted the region from Serbs. In 1367 erected a tower which dedicated the monastery Pantocrator. The tower rises in the first slopes of the Hill, near the village of marmari and survives by half. Along with the Tower of the Arabs on the other side, Domaine of the monastery of Zografou, It was concentration and distribution points of the agricultural production of the hinterland of Struma. The Marmarion as settlement survived as the early Ottoman times and bridge ships reached the mouth of the Strymon eiseplean. Last reported in 1547 from the browser Belon, While Chrysoupoli had already declined. The passage, however, the River at this point was retained until the 18th-19th century. By the 18th century a new settlement named Neochori was developed on the hillside and closer to the ruins of ancient and Christian Amphipolis. Today the modern settlement lies in a part of ancient walled city and North of Paleochristian.

The Paleochristian Amphipolis lies almost in the middle of ancient Amphipolis and occupies a small section from the top of a low hill where the Citadel of classical times. Defined by its own precinct. The yard with total perimeter 1105 m. It forms an irregular rectangle with an extension on the northeast corner. The South side coincides with the route of the southern part of the ancient Acropolis. Survives to a height that varies from 0,50 m. until 1,50 m. and width ranging from 1,65 m. until 2,75 m. It has two main gates on the North-South axis and three pylides. Reinforced at intervals by tetrapleyroys towers and a circular on the northeast corner. Show repairs, additions and recoveries in different seasons. Generally dated to the 4th-6th centuries. At the end of the 6th – early 7th century a transverse wall from North to South with a pentapleyro Tower in the city limited 1/4.

The early Christian Basilicas of Amphipolis

Within the walled area anaskaftikan four basilicas that conventionally have been named Royal s, (B), (C), (D), a periapsis building, a tank and portions of houses. The early Christian Basilicas of Amphipolis are small buildings than those of Philippi and Thessalonica. The type of xylostegis Royal, Guy who prevailed in the early Christian era throughout the Mediterranean basin. Decorated with exquisite architectural sculptures and mosaic floors. The Basilica A, It is the first Christian building identified, by archaeologist Dimitris Lazaridis. It is a three-aisled with splint, Exo-narthex and atrium, and different annexes. Divided into three aisles by two colonnades of which found several columns with their kionokrana. It also maintained the base of pulpit with antwpi scale and the mainstay of the dam of presbyterioy. The floor of the nave and the narthex was from marble slabs, While the side aisles and the Exo-narthex there were mosaics, from retained the South aisle, as well as those of the vestibule.

The Basilica dates based on the architectural decoration in the middle of the 6th century. The transverse wall that passed over the achristeyse. The Royal B, located near the northeast corner of the fortification wall. It is a three-aisled with a narthex and atrium. On the north side of the atrium and narthex developed four auxiliary spaces. The Middle nave brought marble flooring, While the lateral aisles mosaics of which barely maintained. Dated to the 6th century. The Royal C, located in the western part of the city, a few meters Northwest of the Royal s. It is a three-aisled with a narthex and atrium, which is located on the South side of rather than in Western. Brought mosaic floors with hearty vegetable and geometric decoration in all areas of. In the area of the apse is preserved a late one-room Chapel. Dating to the second half of the 5th century. The construction of the subsequent transept left her outside the teichismenis area.

Royal d ' is the last Royal in Apocalypse series, but rather the artefacts chronologically (2nd half of 5th century). It is a three-aisled with splint, patio and various annexes that develop in the North and South side of. Inside survives the mainstay of the presbyterioy dam and the base of the pulpit. The Middle aisle had marble floors and the lateral clay slabs. From the Atrium is maintained the mainstay of portico and columns that were in place.

The perikentros Temple is the most striking composition early Christian architecture monument of the city and is one of the few perikentroys temples of this period in Greece. Core of the temple is a central Hexagon surrounded by regional corridor floor plan oktagwnikis. In the East the five sided one protrudes outside the niche of apse flanked by two rectangular rooms. The entire Temple is decorated with rich marble inlays that in some places are preserved in very good condition.